Cochrane features en

What are the benefits and risks of treating preterm infants at risk of developing bronchopulmonary dysplasia with corticosteroids?

5 days 9 hours ago
What are the benefits and risks of treating preterm infants at risk of developing bronchopulmonary dysplasia with corticosteroids? Key messages Treatment with dexamethasone after the first week of life is, at present, the only effective treatment in babies at high risk of bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Giving corticosteroids directly into the windpipe, together with surfactant, might be a promising treatment in the future. Treatment with dexamethasone in the first week of life and treatment with hydrocortisone at any time after birth are ineffective or possibly unsafe. What is bronchopulmonary...

Does releasing Wolbachia-carrying mosquitoes prevent dengue infection?

5 days 9 hours ago
Does releasing Wolbachia-carrying mosquitoes prevent dengue infection? Key messages – People living in areas where Wolbachia-carrying Aedes mosquitoes have been released are less likely to contract dengue than people living in areas with no release. – People living in areas where Wolbachia-carrying Aedes mosquitoes have been released are less likely to be admitted to hospital due to dengue than people living in areas with no release. What is dengue? Dengue is a viral disease transmitted by certain mosquitoes that is found in over 100 countries, with 3.9 billion people at risk of infection....

Psychological interventions for depression and anxiety in patients with heart disease

1 week 3 days ago
Psychological interventions for depression and anxiety in patients with heart disease Do psychological interventions reduce depression and anxiety in patients with coronary heart disease, heart failure or atrial fibrillation compared to no psychological intervention? Key messages - Psychological interventions for depression and anxiety probably result in a moderate reduction in depression and anxiety in patients with coronary heart disease or heart failure. - Psychological interventions for depression and anxiety may result in a moderate improvement in mental health-related quality of life,...

Neoadjuvant chemotherapy in locally advanced rectal cancer

3 weeks ago
Neoadjuvant chemotherapy in locally advanced rectal cancer This is a protocol for a Cochrane Review (intervention). The objectives are as follows: To determine the efficacy, safety profile, and potential harms of neoadjuvant chemotherapy, with or without biologics (e.g. anti-epidermal growth factor receptor, anti-vascular endothelial growth factor), given sequentially before or after neoadjuvant short-course radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy in people undergoing resection for locally advanced rectal cancer compared with no neoadjuvant chemotherapy. This is a protocol....

What are the effects of endoscopic sphincterotomy for adults with biliary sphincter of Oddi dysfunction?

3 weeks 3 days ago
What are the effects of endoscopic sphincterotomy for adults with biliary sphincter of Oddi dysfunction? Key messages – We do not know if endoscopic sphincterotomy compared with sham operation or dual endoscopic sphincterotomy benefits adults with biliary sphincter of Oddi dysfunction, or changes serious or non-serious unwanted effects, quality of life, and liver function. – We have no data comparing endoscopic sphincterotomy with sham operation, endoscopic papillary balloon dilation,or dual endoscopic sphincterotomyon deaths, non-serious unwanted effects, and hospital stay. – No trial...

What do people think of strategies to identify cases of tuberculosis in low- and middle-income countries?

3 weeks 4 days ago
What do people think of strategies to identify cases of tuberculosis in low- and middle-income countries? What is active case finding? Active case finding (ACF) involves health workers going out into communities to identify people with tuberculosis who otherwise might not have sought help in clinics (e.g. because they live too far from health facilities or cannot afford to get there). The aim of ACF is to find people who have tuberculosis and provide them with treatment, in order to reduce the spread of disease and improve the health of infected people. What did we want to find out? We aimed...

Prebiotics for treatment of ulcerative colitis

3 weeks 6 days ago
Prebiotics for treatment of ulcerative colitis Key messages We found that prebiotics may not differ from placebo in preventing relapses of ulcerative colitis. For adults in remission, prebiotics may result in more side effects than placebo. The evidence was of poor quality for remission, improvement in disease activity, inflammation, and quality of life, therefore we could not reach any conclusions for these outcomes. There needs to be more high-quality research on this topic before any firm conclusions can be reached. What is ulcerative colitis? Ulcerative colitis is one of the two main...

Are psychological therapies effective in reducing depression in older adults living in long-term care?

3 weeks 6 days ago
Are psychological therapies effective in reducing depression in older adults living in long-term care? Key messages – Psychological therapies (sometimes known as talking therapies) may treat symptoms of depression better than non-therapy approaches in older adults living in long-term care (LTC) facilities (for example, nursing or residential homes and assisted-living facilities). – Psychological therapies may also be better than non-therapy approaches for increasing quality of life and psychological well-being (an individual's emotional health and overall functioning) in the short term. –...

Identifying the most clinically effective exercise prescription for people with intermittent claudication (MAXIMISE): a component network meta-analysis with concurrent cost-effectiveness analysis

4 weeks ago
Identifying the most clinically effective exercise prescription for people with intermittent claudication (MAXIMISE): a component network meta-analysis with concurrent cost-effectiveness analysis This is a protocol for a Cochrane Review (intervention). The objectives are as follows: To conduct a component network meta-analysis (CNMA) comparing different SEP combinations to identify the most clinically effective exercise prescription for people with IC. To conduct an economic evaluation comparing different SEP combinations for people with IC to identify which are cost-effective. This is a...

Is face-down positioning better than other positioning after vitrectomy and gas tamponade for macula-involving rhegmatogenous retinal detachments?

1 month ago
Is face-down positioning better than other positioning after vitrectomy and gas tamponade for macula-involving rhegmatogenous retinal detachments? Key messages - There is not enough high-quality information to say whether face-down positioning should be recommended to people after surgery for retinal detachments affecting the center of the retina (the macula). - Overall, evidence from studies suggests that face-down positioning after surgery may lead to fewer complications, with less postoperative retinal displacement, outer retinal folds, and binocular diplopia (double vision with both eyes...

Does the use of antibiotics prevent leptospirosis?

1 month ago
Does the use of antibiotics prevent leptospirosis? Key message – Antibiotics probably do not reduce the chance of developing leptospirosis infection and may cause non-serious adverse events. The evidence is very limited, so our findings may change if there are more quality trials published. What is leptospirosis? Leptospirosis is a zoonotic (that is,infection that can be transmitted naturally from animals with a backbone to humans or from humans to animals with a backbone)and waterborne disease that occurs worldwide. Humans are infected when they come into contact with water, soil, or food...

Is the use of antibiotics beneficial for treating leptospirosis?

1 month ago
Is the use of antibiotics beneficial for treating leptospirosis? Key message – Antibiotics (for example, penicillin, doxycycline, azithromycin, cefotaxime, and chloramphenicol) may have no effect on mortality (death) and side effects associated with leptospirosis infection. However, due to the limited evidence, these findings may change if more trials of high quality are conducted. What is leptospirosis? Leptospirosis is a global disease transmitted from animals (cattle, pigs, horses, dogs, and rodents) to humans (called zoonotic) through contaminated water sources, soil, or food...

Newborn resuscitation with intact cord for non-vigorous term or late preterm infants

1 month ago
Newborn resuscitation with intact cord for non-vigorous term or late preterm infants This is a protocol for a Cochrane Review (intervention). The objectives are as follows: To assess the safety and efficacy of resuscitation with an intact cord compared to resuscitative care with immediate cord clamping or umbilical cord milking for non-vigorous term or late preterm neonates (≥ 35 weeks' gestation). This is a protocol....

Cognitive behavioural therapy plus standard care for first-episode and recent-onset psychosis

1 month ago
Cognitive behavioural therapy plus standard care for first-episode and recent-onset psychosis Key messages Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) is effective for reducing symptoms of schizophrenia and improving functioning in people at the beginning of the disorder. Very little information was available on the potential adverse effects connected with this intervention. Introduction Schizophrenia is a severe mental disorder because of the heavy effect of the symptoms on the daily lives of those affected. People with this illness struggle to differentiate between their own thoughts, beliefs and...

Do cancer vaccines help people with advanced non-small cell lung cancer?

1 month ago
Do cancer vaccines help people with advanced non-small cell lung cancer? Key messages - The vaccines evaluated in this review do not improve peoples' survival, or progression-free survival, or do so to a negligible extent. - Unwanted effects of the vaccines are not frequent. What is lung cancer? Lung cancer is one of the most common cancers worldwide. Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the most common type of lung cancer, accounting for around 87% of lung cancers. Non-small cell lung cancer is often diagnosed when it is at an advanced stage, which is associated with high death rates and a...

General strengthening exercise for chronic low back pain

1 month ago
General strengthening exercise for chronic low back pain This is a protocol for a Cochrane Review (intervention). The objectives are as follows: The primary objective is to investigate the benefits and harms of general strengthening exercise therapy in adults with chronic non-specific low back pain on pain intensity, functional limitations, health-related quality of life, psychological functioning, and adverse events compared to placebo, sham, or attention control and no treatment (including waitlists, control groups with no treatment provided, usual/normal care not controlled by the trial...
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