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Personally tailored activities for people with dementia living in their own homes

Wed, 08/12/2020 - 18:01
Background People with dementia living in their own homes often have too little to do. If a person with dementia has the chance to take part in activities which match his or her personal interests and preferences, this may lead to a better quality of life, reduce challenging behaviour such as

Communicating to young people and adults through their mobile devices to improve sexual and reproductive health

Tue, 08/11/2020 - 12:01
Aim of this review We assessed the effect of sending targeted messages by mobile devices to young people and adults about their sexual and reproductive health (SRH). Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and unintended pregnancies are important causes of illness and early death worldwide. Key

Interventions for acute severe asthma attacks in children: an overview of Cochrane Reviews

Fri, 08/07/2020 - 13:01
Background Asthma is a common childhood illness that is caused by narrowing of the small air passages in the lungs. This narrowing is due to swelling and inflammation and to muscles around the air passages becoming tighter. An acute asthma attack results in shortness of breath, cough, wheeze, and

Surgical and medical interventions for abdominal aortic graft infections

Thu, 08/06/2020 - 11:01
Background Abdominal aortic graft infections are a serious complication following aortic aneurysm surgery. They can be managed in two ways: either with surgery or medical management. Surgery is currently the mainstay of treatment and is usually performed by two methods, one of which involves

Do different settings and techniques for measuring blood pressure during pregnancy help to improve outcomes for women and babies?

Tue, 08/04/2020 - 01:01
What is the issue? Regular blood pressure (BP) measurements are crucial during pregnancy for the diagnosis and management of high BP. BP can be measured in various settings (e.g. self-measurement at home versus in clinic) and using different techniques (e.g. measurement based on different blood

Colonoscopy-based prophylactic therapy for postoperative Crohn’s disease

Tue, 08/04/2020 - 00:01
What is Crohn's disease? Crohn's disease (CD) is a chronic inflammatory disorder that can affect any segment of the gastrointestinal tract. Symptoms include abdominal pain, non‐bloody diarrhoea and weight loss. CD is characterised by periods of clinical relapse when people experience

How well do tools predict what happens with adults with newly-diagnosed chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) over time?

Fri, 07/31/2020 - 10:01
What was the aim of this review? There are many types of blood cancers called leukaemia. Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) is the most common type. Twenty-five per cent of people who have leukaemia have CLL. It is natural for people with newly-diagnosed CLL and their families to want to know what

Treatments for people with bladder pain syndrome

Thu, 07/30/2020 - 20:01
What is bladder pain syndrome? Bladder pain syndrome (BPS; also called painful bladder syndrome or interstitial cystitis) is a long-term painful condition that affects the bladder. ‘Syndrome’ refers to a collection of symptoms. In BPS, these symptoms include: intense pain in the pelvis (felt below

Earlier compared to later addition of human milk fortifier to human milk to promote growth in preterm infants

Wed, 07/29/2020 - 20:01
Review question Does adding human milk fortifier (HMF) early promote growth and improve outcomes in preterm infants compared to adding it late? Background Uncertainty exists about the optimal point at which HMF should be added to human milk for promoting growth in preterm infants. The most common

Improving access to food in low- and middle-income countries

Tue, 07/28/2020 - 16:01
Review question We looked at the effect of community-level interventions to improve access to nutritious food in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) on people, households and communities. Background Food security exists when people have physical, social and economic access to sufficient, safe,

Nutrition education to support weaning of term-born infants

Sat, 07/25/2020 - 16:01
Review question We reviewed the evidence for effects of nutrition education about appropriate feeding practices during weaning on growth and development in children born at term gestation. Background Around the world, over 150 million children are undernourished and over 42 million are overweight

Can exenatide, a diabetes drug, be used to treat Parkinson's disease?

Fri, 07/24/2020 - 09:01
Review question To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of GLP-1 receptor agonists for Parkinson's disease. Background People with Parkinson's disease (PD) have problems with movement, such as slow movement and shaking at rest. They may also have other problems such as depression,

How accurate is chest ultrasonography compared to supine chest radiography for diagnosis of traumatic pneumothorax in the emergency department?

Fri, 07/24/2020 - 09:01
Why is improving the diagnosis of traumatic pneumothorax important? Air that collects between the lung and the chest wall is described as a pneumothorax. Pneumothorax can cause collapse of the lung, change the position of the heart and other structures in the chest, reduce the blood flow back to

Interventions available during pandemics for heavy menstrual bleeding: an overview of Cochrane Reviews

Fri, 07/24/2020 - 09:01
Review question What is the effectiveness and safety of treatments commonly available during pandemics for heavy menstrual bleeding? Background Heavy menstrual bleeding is a common gynaecological condition. Treatments that can continue during pandemics include: 1. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory

Measurement of β-D-glucans to detect invasive fungal infection in immunocompromised people

Tue, 07/21/2020 - 22:01
Why is improving the diagnosis of invasive fungal infections important? Fungal infections occur in people who are unable to fight infection, and these infections can be life-threatening in this group of people. Fungal infections are difficult to diagnose. Failure to recognize a fungal infection

Internal iliac artery revascularisation versus internal iliac artery occlusion for endovascular treatment of aorto-iliac aneurysms

Tue, 07/21/2020 - 13:01
Background An aorto-iliac aneurysm is a dilatation (aneurysm) of the aorta, the main large blood vessel in the body, which carries blood out from the heart to all organs and iliac arteries (distal branches of the aorta). The aneurysm can grow and burst (rupture), which leads to severe bleeding and

Psychological interventions to foster resilience in healthcare students

Mon, 07/20/2020 - 20:01
Background Healthcare students (e.g. medical, nursing, midwifery, paramedic, psychology, physical therapy, or social work students) have a high academic work load, are required to pass examinations and are exposed to human suffering. This can adversely affect their physical and mental health.

Interventions for the management of obesity in people with bipolar disorder

Mon, 07/20/2020 - 17:01
Why is this review important? Bipolar disorder is one of the most common serious mental illnesses and impacts mood, thinking, behaviour, functioning, and quality of life. Approximately 60 million people worldwide are affected by bipolar disorder. Obesity is commonly associated with the illness, and

Interventions outside the workplace to reduce sedentary behaviour

Fri, 07/17/2020 - 14:01
Background Adults spend most of their time outside of their workplace being sedentary, for example, sitting while watching TV or using a computer, or travelling to and from work in a car. Prolonged sedentary behaviour has been linked with increased risk of several diseases and premature death. We

Does adding iron to wheat flour reduce anaemia and increase iron levels in the general population?

Fri, 07/17/2020 - 12:01
Why is this question important? Anaemia is a common condition usually caused by low iron levels in the body. Iron is important because it is the main component of haemoglobin, the protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen around the body. If the body cannot produce enough healthy red blood