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Ankle-foot orthoses for improving walking in people with calf muscle weakness due to neuromuscular disorders

Mon, 09/20/2021 - 12:01
Ankle-foot orthoses for improving walking in people with calf muscle weakness due to neuromuscular disorders This is a protocol for a Cochrane Review (intervention). The objectives are as follows: To assess the effects of AFOs for improving walking in adults with calf muscle weakness due to slowly progressive NMD. This is a protocol....

Bruton tyrosine kinase inhibitors for chronic lymphocytic leukemia

Fri, 09/17/2021 - 15:01
Bruton tyrosine kinase inhibitors for chronic lymphocytic leukemia This is a protocol for a Cochrane Review (intervention). The objectives are as follows: The objective of this review is to assess the effects of Bruton tyrosine kinase (BTK) inhibitors in the treatment of adults with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), given alone or in combination with other agents, in comparison to existing anti-leukemic therapies such as cytotoxic chemotherapy, monoclonal antibodies, or other small-molecule inhibitors. We plan to assess efficacy, safety, and quality-of-life outcomes, in order to summarize...

Enzyme replacement therapy with galsulfase for mucopolysaccharidosis type VI

Fri, 09/17/2021 - 13:01
Enzyme replacement therapy with galsulfase for mucopolysaccharidosis type VI Review question How effective and safe is enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) with galsulfase (a manufactured version of the enzyme arylsulphatase B) for treating mucopolysaccharidosis type VI (MPS VI) compared to other treatments, no treatment or treatment with a placebo? Background Mucopolysaccharidosis type VI (MPS VI) is a rare genetic disorder where there is a lack of the enzyme arylsulphatase B. It is a progressive and life-limiting condition with a range of symptoms, which may include coarse facial features,...

Accuracy of routine laboratory tests to predict mortality and deterioration to severe or critical COVID-19 in people with SARS-CoV-2

Fri, 09/17/2021 - 12:01
Accuracy of routine laboratory tests to predict mortality and deterioration to severe or critical COVID-19 in people with SARS-CoV-2 This is a protocol for a Cochrane Review (diagnostic). The objectives are as follows: To assess the accuracy of routine blood-based laboratory tests to predict mortality and deterioration to severe or critical (from mild or moderate) COVID-19 in people with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Secondary objectives Where data are available, we will investigate whether prognostic accuracy varies according to a specific measurement or test, reference standard, timing of outcome...

Cannabinoids for the treatment of dementia

Fri, 09/17/2021 - 09:01
Cannabinoids for the treatment of dementia Background Dementia is the name for a range of conditions associated with an ongoing loss of thinking ability, memory, and other mental abilities. Medical treatments for dementia are limited and confer modest benefits. Many medications and non-pharmacological interventions are used for behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia. However, there are continuing problems with their lack of efficacy, safety, and feasibility. Accordingly, new, safe, and more effective treatments are needed for dementia and its associated symptoms. Our review...

Continuing education meetings and workshops: effects on healthcare professionals’ practice and on patients’ health

Wed, 09/15/2021 - 18:01
Continuing education meetings and workshops: effects on healthcare professionals’ practice and on patients’ health What is the aim of this review? The aim of this Cochrane Review was to assess the effects of educational meetings on healthcare professionals’ practice and on patients’ health. Review authors searched for all relevant studies to answer this question and included 215 studies in the review. Key messages Educational meetings alone or as the main part of a larger strategy are probably better than no strategy for improving healthcare professionals’ practice and patients' health. They...

Vocabulary interventions for second language (L2) learners up to six years

Wed, 09/15/2021 - 17:01
Vocabulary interventions for second language (L2) learners up to six years This is a protocol for a Cochrane Review (intervention). The objectives are as follows: The primary objective is to examine the immediate and long-term effects of second language (L2) vocabulary interventions targeting L2 learners up to six years of age on vocabulary and social-emotional well-being. The secondary objectives are to examine associations between L2 vocabulary interventions and general characteristics of L2 learners (e.g. age, L2 exposure and L1 skills), as well as specific characteristics of L2 learners...

Can non-medicinal measures prevent or reduce SARS-CoV-2 infections in long term care facilities?

Wed, 09/15/2021 - 11:01
Can non-medicinal measures prevent or reduce SARS-CoV-2 infections in long term care facilities? Key messages • Non-medicinal measures (e.g. visiting restrictions or regular testing) may prevent SARS-CoV-2 infections (causing COVID-19 disease) in residents and staff in long term care facilities, but we have concerns about the reliability of the findings. • More high-quality studies on real-world experiences are needed, in particular. • More research is also needed on measures in facilities where most residents and staff are vaccinated, as well as regions other than North America and Europe....

Roux-en-Y versus Billroth-I reconstruction after surgery for gastric cancer

Wed, 09/15/2021 - 10:01
Roux-en-Y versus Billroth-I reconstruction after surgery for gastric cancer Review question We reviewed the evidence for the effect of Roux-en-Y compared to Billroth-I reconstruction after surgery for gastric cancer. We found eight studies. Background Gastric (stomach) cancer is one of the most common cancers worldwide. Recently, early detection rates of gastric cancer and treatment technology have improved. As a result, people can survive longer after surgery, and the importance of quality of life after surgery has been discussed. Billroth-I and Roux-en-Y are both options for reconstruction...

Lamotrigine as a treatment for prevention of recurrence of bipolar disorder

Wed, 09/15/2021 - 04:01
Lamotrigine as a treatment for prevention of recurrence of bipolar disorder Review question To investigate the clinical effectiveness (benefits and harms) of lamotrigine for maintenance therapy of bipolar disorder in comparison with placebo, combination therapy or existing drugs (e.g. lithium, olanzapine). Background Lamotrigine is approved for the maintenance treatment (treatment for prevention of recurrence) of bipolar disorder. It could be a viable and effective treatment strategy for the maintenance of bipolar disorder, where it demonstrated a lower risk of recurrence than placebo. In...

When healthcare consumers (patients, carers and family members) and healthcare providers work together as partners to plan, deliver and evaluate health services, what effects does this have?

Wed, 09/15/2021 - 02:01
When healthcare consumers (patients, carers and family members) and healthcare providers work together as partners to plan, deliver and evaluate health services, what effects does this have? What are person-centred health services? Traditionally, health services have been developed by healthcare providers and focus on specific diseases or medical specialties. Involving consumers as partners in planning, delivering and evaluating health services may lead to services that are better able to meet the needs of and provide care for individuals. Why we did this Cochrane review Governments...

Non-pharmacological interventions for preventing clotting of extracorporeal circuits during continuous kidney replacement therapy

Tue, 09/14/2021 - 10:01
Non-pharmacological interventions for preventing clotting of extracorporeal circuits during continuous kidney replacement therapy What is the issue? Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a major problem in people with severe illness. In cases of severe AKI, kidney replacement therapy/dialysis (KRT) using circuits is necessary. Continuous kidney replacement therapy is performed continuously over 24 hours. Clotting of the CKRT circuit can interfere with this treatment. To prevent this, a variety of non-pharmacological (not using medication) interventions have been studied. We aimed to summarise current...

Can electronic cigarettes help people stop smoking, and do they have any unwanted effects when used for this purpose?

Tue, 09/14/2021 - 10:01
Can electronic cigarettes help people stop smoking, and do they have any unwanted effects when used for this purpose? What are electronic cigarettes? Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are handheld devices that work by heating a liquid that usually contains nicotine and flavourings. E-cigarettes allow you to inhale nicotine in a vapour rather than smoke. Because they do not burn tobacco, e-cigarettes do not expose users to the same levels of chemicals that can cause diseases in people who smoke conventional cigarettes. Using an e-cigarette is commonly known as 'vaping'. Many people use...

What are the benefits and risks of different treatments for intermittent exotropia (an eye co-ordination problem that starts in childhood)?

Mon, 09/13/2021 - 17:01
What are the benefits and risks of different treatments for intermittent exotropia (an eye co-ordination problem that starts in childhood)? Key messages · Covering one eye with a patch improves the eye co-ordination of children with intermittent exotropia more effectively than regular monitoring by an eye specialist. · Few studies have compared other treatments for intermittent exotropia, and those that have do not provide clear answers about their benefits and risks. · Well-conducted studies are needed in this area to improve the management of intermittent exotropia. What is intermittent...

Workplace interventions to reduce the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection outside of healthcare settings

Mon, 09/13/2021 - 17:01
Workplace interventions to reduce the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection outside of healthcare settings This is a protocol for a Cochrane Review (intervention). The objectives are as follows: To assess the benefits and harms of interventions in non-healthcare-related workplaces to reduce the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection relative to other interventions or no intervention. This is a protocol....

Postoperative chemotherapy for cholangiocarcinoma that can be surgically removed

Mon, 09/13/2021 - 17:01
Postoperative chemotherapy for cholangiocarcinoma that can be surgically removed Review question What are the benefits and harms of postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy (drugs administered after surgery, aiming to kill any cancer left after the operation) versus no postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy or another type or form of chemotherapy in people who underwent resection for cholangiocarcinoma (cancer in the bile ducts) with intent to cure. Background Cholangiocarcinoma is an aggressive tumour for which surgical resection is a mainstay of treatment. Bile ducts are the drainage 'pipes' that...

Physiological track-and-trigger/early warning systems for use in maternity care

Mon, 09/13/2021 - 13:01
Physiological track-and-trigger/early warning systems for use in maternity care What is the question? The aim of this review is to find out from randomised controlled trials if using simple monitoring tools are helpful in alerting to clinical problems and in reducing serious illness or death in pregnant women and in their first six weeks after birth. Examples of such tools are track and trigger systems or early warning systems kept by the bedside in maternity care. Why is this important? Many natural functional changes occur in a woman's body during pregnancy. As a result, a pregnant woman,...

CAR T-cell therapy for people with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma which returns after treatment or no longer responds to treatment

Mon, 09/13/2021 - 12:01
CAR T-cell therapy for people with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma which returns after treatment or no longer responds to treatment Background Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is a fast-growing cancer of the lymphatic system, an important part of the immune system. It affects blood cells that produce antibodies to fight infections. DLBCL is potentially curable. Most people with DLBCL respond well to initial therapies such as chemotherapy. For some people, the disease becomes refractory, which means it no longer responds to treatment, or it relapses, which means it returns after treatment....

Spinal cord stimulation for low back pain

Mon, 09/13/2021 - 03:01
Spinal cord stimulation for low back pain This is a protocol for a Cochrane Review (intervention). The objectives are as follows: To assess the benefits and harms of spinal cord stimulators for people with low back pain, with or without leg pain. This is a protocol....

Ketamine and other glutamate receptor modulators for depression in adults

Sun, 09/12/2021 - 03:01
Ketamine and other glutamate receptor modulators for depression in adults Why is this review important? Depression is one of the most common mental disorders, estimated to affect 350 million people worldwide. Antidepressant medication tends to be given as a first treatment for people with major depression. These drugs are however only effective in about one in four people at one year. Effective alternative medications to treat depression are needed, especially for rapid treatment. A new group of medications is called ‘glutamate receptor modulators’, which act on the glutamergic system. This...

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