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Transcranial colour Doppler (TCD) and transcranial colour-coded duplex (TCCD), in patients with acute ischaemic stroke for detecting intracranial vessel occlusion or stenosis

Wed, 02/19/2020 - 08:01
What is the aim of this review? The aim of this review was to find out how accurate two imaging techniques- transcranial colour Doppler (TCD) and transcranial colour-coded duplex (TCCD)- are for detecting a blockage of the arteries in the brain in the first hours after a stroke and whether they can

Can dihydrocodeine reduce illegal opiate use in adolescents and adults?

Tue, 02/18/2020 - 13:01
Review question We reviewed evidence on the effects of dihydrocodeine (DHC) to reduce illegal substance use among adolescents older than 15 years and adults. Background The use of illegal substances such as heroin is a world-wide problem, and can lead to other issues. What is especially concerning

What are the most accurate rapid point-of-care tests for the detection of Chlamydia?

Wed, 01/29/2020 - 17:01
Review question Chlamydia trachomatis (C trachomatis) is a common, sexually transmitted infection. It can cause serious health problems if not treated early, but many people with C trachomatis do not notice any symptoms and need to have a urine or swab test to confirm infection. This review aimed

Exercise therapies for preventing or treating aromatase inhibitor-induced musculoskeletal symptoms in early breast cancer

Wed, 01/29/2020 - 04:01
What is the aim of this review? Aromatase inhibitors (AI) are a hormonal therapy used to treat a particular type of breast cancer in post-menopausal women. However, they can cause joint and muscle pain (called aromatase inhibitor-induced musculoskeletal symptoms, or AIMSS). The aim of this Cochrane

Hormone replacement therapy for menopausal symptoms in women who have undergone surgical treatment for epithelial ovarian cancer

Tue, 01/28/2020 - 09:01
The issue Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) develops from the surface layer of the ovary. It is the eighth most common cancer and the seventh most common cause of death from cancer worldwide in women. The surgical treatment of EOC includes the removal of all visible tumour deposits in the abdomen;

Low vision rehabilitation for better quality of life in visually impaired adults

Mon, 01/27/2020 - 11:01
What was the aim of the review? The aim of this review was to find out if low vision rehabilitation can improve quality of life (QOL) for vision impaired people. Cochrane Review authors collected and analysed all relevant studies to answer this question and found 44 studies. Key messages Low vision

Oral Janus kinase inhibitors (tofacitinib) for maintenance of remission in ulcerative colitis

Mon, 01/27/2020 - 03:01
What is ulcerative colitis? Ulcerative colitis is a chronic (long-term) inflammatory bowel disease that affects the large bowel. The most common symptoms of ulcerative colitis include bloody diarrhea, abdominal pain and a sudden almost uncontrollable urge to pass stool. Some people experience

Cerivastatin for lowering lipids

Sat, 01/25/2020 - 20:01
Review question How different doses of cerivastatin affect fats in our blood. Background Cerivastatin is a very strong cholesterol-lowering drug. We don't know how its dose size affects the amount of fats in our blood. Search date We looked at research up to March 2019. Study characteristics

Treatments for pruritus (itching) of unknown cause in children and adults

Sat, 01/25/2020 - 12:01
Review question We wanted to investigate the effects of treatment for chronic (lasting longer than six weeks) pruritus (itching) of unknown cause in children and adults. We assessed all treatments, as long as they were compared against each other, placebo (an identical but inactive treatment), a

Improving vaccination uptake among adolescents

Fri, 01/24/2020 - 22:01
This Cochrane Review aimed to assess the effects of approaches to increase the number of adolescents who get vaccinated. Cochrane researchers collected and analysed all relevant studies to answer this question and found 16 studies. Key messages This review showed that several different approaches

Resveratrol for adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus

Fri, 01/24/2020 - 22:01
Review question What are the effects of oral resveratrol supplementation compared with placebo, no treatment, anti-diabetic medications, or diet or exercise, for the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus? Background Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a chronic disorder characterised by increased

Are topical and device-based treatments effective in people with fungal infections of the toenails?

Fri, 01/24/2020 - 22:01
Review question We reviewed evidence about the effect of topical and device-based treatments for fungal infections of the toenails (toenail onychomycosis) when compared against each other, placebo (an identical but inactive treatment), vehicle (inactive ingredients that help deliver an active

Treatments for ascites in people with advanced liver disease

Fri, 01/24/2020 - 22:01
What is the aim of this Cochrane review? To find out the best available treatment for ascites (abnormal build-up of fluid in the tummy) in people with advanced liver disease (liver cirrhosis, or late-stage scarring of the liver with complications). People with cirrhosis and ascites are at

Use of antibiotics to prevent spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in people with advanced liver disease

Fri, 01/24/2020 - 22:01
What was the aim of this Cochrane Review? People with advanced liver disease (liver cirrhosis, or late-stage scarring of the liver with complications) are at risk of developing an abnormal build-up of fluid in the tummy, called ascites. This fluid may get infected with bacteria, without one knowing

Medical interventions to prevent early graft rejection after liver transplantation

Fri, 01/24/2020 - 22:01
What is the aim of this Cochrane Review? Liver transplantation is the main treatment option for people with severe advanced liver disease. When organs or tissues are transplanted from one person (organ donor) to another (organ recipient), the body of the organ recipient identifies the donor organ

Use of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor during in vitro fertilisation treatment

Fri, 01/24/2020 - 22:01
Review question To assess the safety and usefulness of giving granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) in women undergoing in vitro fertilisation (IVF). Background It has been suggested that in women who have persistent thin endometrium (inner lining of the womb) or who have experienced

What effects do washing and moisturising practices have on the skin health of older people in hospital and residential care settings?

Fri, 01/24/2020 - 14:01
Review question We reviewed evidence about the effects of different washing practices and emollients (moisturisers) when compared with usual care or no treatment on maintaining healthy skin in people aged 60 years or older in hospitals or care homes. Background With age, skin becomes drier; this

Is electrical stimulation effective for treating pressure ulcers?

Wed, 01/22/2020 - 01:01
What is the aim of this review? The aim of this review was to find out whether electrical stimulation (ES; an electrical current applied to the skin) can help heal pressure ulcers. We collected and analysed all relevant studies (randomised controlled trials) to answer this question and found 20

Probiotics for people with cystic fibrosis

Wed, 01/22/2020 - 00:01
Review question We reviewed the evidence for the use of probiotics in people with cystic fibrosis. Background Cystic fibrosis leads to thick mucus which affects the lungs, gut and other organs. People with cystic fibrosis often have altered gut bacteria and inflammation. Gut inflammation may be

Treating long-term palmoplantar pustulosis (pustules on the hands and feet)

Mon, 01/20/2020 - 17:01
Review question We wanted to assess treatments for palmoplantar pustulosis (a persistent condition characterised by small, pus-filled blisters on the hands and feet), when compared to an inactive substance (placebo), no intervention, or each other. We included 37 studies. Background Palmoplantar

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