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Community first responders for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in adults and children

Fri, 07/19/2019 - 19:01
Review question To assess the effect of mobilizing community first responders to out-of-hospital cardiac arrest events in adults and children older than four weeks of age, in terms of survival and neurological function. Background Out‐of‐hospital cardiac arrest is a major cause of death. It occurs

Buffered solutions versus 0.9% saline for resuscitation in critically ill adults and children

Fri, 07/19/2019 - 12:01
Background Intravenous fluid therapy serves as the cornerstone of treatment for a wide spectrum of severe illnesses. Knowing its impact in terms of clinical outcomes is an important issue. There are some doubts as to whether the use of 0.9% saline may cause higher mortality among inpatients or a

Surgical interventions for symptomatic mild to moderate knee osteoarthritis

Fri, 07/19/2019 - 11:01
Review question Is surgical intervention safe and beneficial in the management of patients with symptomatic mild to moderate osteoarthritis of the knee? Background Osteoarthritis of the knee affects millions of people worldwide. End-stage osteoarthritis of the knee is successfully treated with a

Nutrient-enriched formula for preterm infants

Wed, 07/17/2019 - 17:01
Review question Does feeding preterm infants with nutrient-enriched formula (extra energy and protein) compared with standard formula increase the rate of growth and improve development? Background Standard formula (designed for term infants) may not provide preterm infants with sufficient

Genetic testing for predicting and preventing severe skin rashes caused by drugs

Wed, 07/17/2019 - 16:01
Review question The aim of this Cochrane Review was to find out if genetic testing for certain genotypes (i.e. the presence or absence of a particular gene variation) before prescribing drugs can prevent serious skin reactions in people prescribed drugs that are known to cause delayed type

Exposure to the smell and taste of milk to accelerate feeding in preterm infants

Tue, 07/16/2019 - 22:01
Review question We reviewed the evidence available from clinical studies to find out about exposing infants born early (preterm) to the smell and taste of milk with feedings given by a tube which goes through the nose or mouth into the stomach. We compared this with not exposing preterm infants to

Interventions for morphea

Tue, 07/16/2019 - 09:01
Review question The aim of this Cochrane Review was to assess the effects of treatments, either given in isolation or combination, for people with morphea (morphoea), when compared with an inactive substance (placebo), no intervention, any other treatment, or different doses or duration of a

Lifestyle changes for treating psoriasis

Tue, 07/16/2019 - 02:01
Review question We wanted to see whether lifestyle changes (e.g. changing diet, exercising, and avoiding smoking and drinking alcohol), alone or combined, were useful in treating psoriasis when compared to no such changes or another psoriasis treatment. Background Psoriasis is a long-lasting,

Human albumin infusion for treating oedema in people with nephrotic syndrome

Fri, 07/12/2019 - 11:01
What is the issue? Nephrotic syndrome is a kidney disorder that causes the body to excrete high quantities of protein in urine. The loss of protein causes the body to retain fluid that would normally be excreted in the urine and swelling (oedema) typically starting at the ankles and sometimes

Pharmacological interventions to prevent and treat upper gastrointestinal bleeding in neonates

Tue, 07/09/2019 - 14:09
Review question To assess how different medications for reducing stomach acidity (proton pump inhibitors, histamine 2 receptor antagonists, antacids) or for protecting the stomach lining (sucralfate or bismuth salts) given to preterm and term infants help to prevent or treat upper gastrointestinal

Routine monitoring of stomach aspirates for prevention of necrotising enterocolitis in preterm infants

Tue, 07/09/2019 - 11:01
Review question Does routine monitoring of stomach aspirates in preterm infants prevent necrotising enterocolitis? Background Monitoring of stomach aspirates to diagnose feed intolerance and necrotising enterocolitis is a common practice in preterm infants who are on tube feeds. No adequate

Diagnostic accuracy of total serum bile acids or individual bile acids for intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy in woman claiming pruritus

Tue, 07/09/2019 - 11:01
Review question To assess and compare the diagnostic accuracy of total serum bile acids (TSBA) and some components of serum bile acid profile for the diagnosis of intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy in woman with onset of pruritus during pregnancy. Background 'Diagnostic accuracy' means

Re-feeding versus discarding gastric residuals to improve growth in preterm infants

Tue, 07/09/2019 - 11:01
Review question Does re-feeding stomach aspirates in preterm infants promote growth without causing feeding problems? Background Monitoring of stomach aspirates to diagnose feed intolerance and necrotising enterocolitis is a common practice for preterm infants on tube feeds. There is no consensus

Pay for performance (payment or penalty methods to encourage hospitals to increase quality of care)

Sat, 07/06/2019 - 11:01
What was the aim of this review The aim of this Cochrane Review was to find out if 'pay for performance' — that is, providing hospitals with monetary incentives to meet targets or penalizing them for failing to reach those targets — can improve the quality of patient care, resource use

Primaquine to cure people with Plasmodium vivax malaria: comparing dosing schedules

Sat, 07/06/2019 - 11:01
Plasmodium vivax malaria can sometimes cause potentially life-threatening illness, and the infection continues to make many people unwell. The infection includes a liver stage, and this requires primaquine to eradicate it and prevent the infection recrudescing. However, the current dosing schedule

Dialysate temperature reduction for intradialytic hypotension for people with chronic kidney disease requiring haemodialysis

Fri, 07/05/2019 - 11:01
What is the issue? An increasing number of patients with chronic kidney disease need haemodialysis (HD). When the kidneys are not able to remove enough waste from the blood, HD is used to clean the blood and to remove the excess water via a dialysis machine. Intradialytic hypotension (IDH) is a

Treatments for neuropathic pain in persons with sickle cell disease

Fri, 07/05/2019 - 11:01
Review question We reviewed the evidence about the effect and safety of drug, or other therapies, for treating pain due to nerve damage (neuropathic pain) in people with sickle cell disease (SCD). Background Pain is the most common complication of SCD. Some of this pain may be due to damage to

Interventions to help support caregivers of people with a brain or spinal cord tumour

Tue, 07/02/2019 - 11:01
The issue Family caregivers (e.g. spouses, family members or close friends) often provide physical and emotional support to peoples with a brain or spinal tumour (cancer). However, family caregiving is linked to considerable burden and distress. Therefore, it is important to meet the support needs

How good are ultrasound, CT, MRI, and PET-CT for identifying spread of disease in the body among people with melanoma?

Tue, 07/02/2019 - 11:01
What is the aim of the review? We wanted to find out which imaging tests are better for identifying spread of disease among people with a first diagnosis of melanoma (primary staging) and among people with possible recurrence of melanoma (re-staging). We looked at the evidence for ultrasound, CT,

The effects of fortification of wheat and maize flour with folic acid on population health outcomes

Mon, 07/01/2019 - 11:59
Background Folate is an essential vitamin that is needed to make and repair DNA and for cell division. Folate has two main forms: folate, the natural form found in foods, and folic acid, the form that is used in supplements and fortified foods. Wheat and maize (corn) flour are staple crops consumed