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What are the benefits and risks of electrical spinal cord and dorsal root ganglion stimulation for the treatment of chronic pain in adults?

Thu, 12/02/2021 - 13:01
What are the benefits and risks of electrical spinal cord and dorsal root ganglion stimulation for the treatment of chronic pain in adults? Why this question is important Persistent (chronic) pain is a common problem that affects people from all walks of life. It can be the result of a wide range of different medical conditions and is sometimes unexplained, but it often causes substantial suffering, distress and disability and can have major impacts on a person's quality of life. Implanted spinal neuromodulation (SNMD) interventions involve surgically implanting wires (electrodes) into the...

Intravenous fluids compared to nasogastric or orogastric tube hydration for children hospitalised with bronchiolitis

Wed, 12/01/2021 - 23:01
Intravenous fluids compared to nasogastric or orogastric tube hydration for children hospitalised with bronchiolitis Review question Is feeding tube or intravenous catheter better for hydrating children hospitalised with bronchiolitis? Background Bronchiolitis is a common respiratory infection in young children that makes feeding difficult due to increased breathing effort and mucous production. When infants are considered unsafe to feed by mouth (orally), there are two ways that fluid can be given: a feeding tube and/or an intravenous catheter. A feeding tube is inserted through the nose or...

Recanalisation therapies for wake-up stroke

Wed, 12/01/2021 - 03:01
Recanalisation therapies for wake-up stroke Review question Do people who wake up with new acute stroke symptoms benefit from treatments to reopen the blocked blood vessels (recanalisation therapies)? Background Most strokes are caused by a blockage of a blood vessel in the brain by a blood clot (ischaemic stroke). This is a leading cause of death and disability worldwide. Treatments to reopen blood vessels such as clot-dissolving drugs (thrombolysis) or mechanical devices to remove blood clots (thrombectomy) may improve recovery after ischaemic stroke if blood flow is rapidly restored....

Pharmacological interventions for painful persistent temporomandibular disorders (TMD)

Wed, 12/01/2021 - 03:01
Pharmacological interventions for painful persistent temporomandibular disorders (TMD) This is a protocol for a Cochrane Review (intervention). The objectives are as follows: To assess the efficacy and adverse effects of pharmacological interventions for reducing pain and the impact of pain in people aged 18 years or older with painful persistent temporomandibular disorders (TMD). This is a protocol....

Blue light-enhanced versus white light resection in the treatment of non-muscle invasive bladder cancer

Wed, 12/01/2021 - 03:01
Blue light-enhanced versus white light resection in the treatment of non-muscle invasive bladder cancer Review question How does a resection (surgical removal) of bladder cancer supported with a special visualization method (blue light) compare to a standard resection with white light in people in whom a tumor of the inner bladder wall is suspected? Background In people suspected of having bladder cancer, suspicious tissue is cut from the inner bladder wall using a special instrument inserted through the urethra into the bladder. However, it is sometimes difficult to tell what is normal...

Nasal continuous positive airway pressure levels for the prevention of morbidity and mortality in preterm infants

Tue, 11/30/2021 - 19:01
Nasal continuous positive airway pressure levels for the prevention of morbidity and mortality in preterm infants Review question How does giving preterm infants low versus moderate-high levels of nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) impact important health outcomes? Background Preterm infants are born earlier than expected. Compared to term infants, preterm infants have immature lungs that are at risk of partial collapse. This collapse makes it difficult for the lungs to bring oxygen into the body and remove carbon dioxide from the body. In response, such infants are commonly...

Treatments for stomach pain in Crohn's disease

Mon, 11/29/2021 - 18:01
Treatments for stomach pain in Crohn's disease What is the aim of this review? The aim of this Cochrane Review was to find out whether treatments in people with Crohn's disease can improve stomach pain. We analysed data from 14 studies to answer this question. Key messages Based on low-quality evidence, electrical brain stimulation may improve stomach pain compared to fake brain stimulation. It is unclear whether there is any difference between a low FODMAP (a group of sugars found in food) diet and a diet that is not low in FODMAP in improving stomach pain. It is unclear whether there...

Continuous glucose monitoring systems for monitoring cystic fibrosis‐related diabetes

Mon, 11/29/2021 - 18:01
Continuous glucose monitoring systems for monitoring cystic fibrosis‐related diabetes Review question Canusing continuous glucose monitoring systems (CGMS) help people with cystic fibrosis-related diabetes (CFRD) manage their condition better? Background Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a life-shortening genetic condition. Many people with CF also develop CFRD, where their blood glucose, or the amount of sugar in their blood, can rise to harmful levels. People with CFRD seem to experience more frequent chest infections and a shorter life expectancy than people with CF who do not have diabetes. CFRD...

Red tea (Roselle) for lowering blood pressure in adults

Sat, 11/27/2021 - 12:01
Red tea (Roselle) for lowering blood pressure in adults Key messages: We don't know if taking Roselle lowers blood pressure in people with hypertension (high blood pressure). We don’t know if Roselle is safe for people with hypertension to consume or if it affects heart rate or pulse pressure. What did we want to find out? We wanted to know if red tea (Roselle) is a safe and effective treatment for lowering blood pressure in adults with high blood pressure when compared to placebo (dummy treatment) or no treatment. Roselle contains substances known as anthocyanins which have been shown to...

Substances used for expanding the womb cavity during hysteroscopy at outpatient sites

Fri, 11/26/2021 - 17:01
Substances used for expanding the womb cavity during hysteroscopy at outpatient sites Review question Cochrane authors wanted to determine which substance is best for expanding the womb cavity during outpatient hysteroscopy. We checked which substance is better tolerated by the patient, has fewer side effects, is more satisfactory to the operator, and is associated with a shorter procedural duration. Background The womb is a hollow organ. A hysteroscope is an apparatus that is introduced inside the womb to see inside the cavity. If one is to see, the cavity needs to be filled with a clear...

Systemic pharmacological treatments for acne: an overview of systematic reviews

Thu, 11/25/2021 - 18:01
Systemic pharmacological treatments for acne: an overview of systematic reviews This is a protocol for a Cochrane Review (overview). The objectives are as follows: To summarise the findings of systematic reviews that assess the effects (benefits and harms) of systemic pharmacological interventions for acne vulgaris. This is a protocol....

Interventions for reducing medication errors in adults in hospital settings

Thu, 11/25/2021 - 18:01
Interventions for reducing medication errors in adults in hospital settings Background to the question An adverse drug event (ADE) is an injury resulting from a medical intervention related to a drug. ADEs are sometimes associated with medication errors. ADEs and medication errors may cause important harm, costs and even death. Interventions for reducing medication errors include medication reconciliation, which is the process of comparing a patient's medication orders to the medications that the patient has been taking. Medication reconciliation can be performed jointly with other...

Treatment options for neuroendocrine tumours

Thu, 11/25/2021 - 18:01
Treatment options for neuroendocrine tumours Review question We reviewed the evidence on safety and efficacy of therapies for neuroendocrine tumours (NETs) in the gastrointestinal tract and the pancreas to provide a ranking of these treatment options. Background NETs are a varied group of rare cancers, which can occur anywhere in the body. However, most neuroendocrine tumours derive from the gastrointestinal tract or the pancreas. There are many types of NETs with different growth rates and symptoms. While some NETs produce excess hormones, others do not release hormones, or not enough to...

Topiramate for juvenile myoclonic epilepsy

Wed, 11/24/2021 - 17:01
Topiramate for juvenile myoclonic epilepsy Background Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) is characterized by involuntary (uncontrolled) twitching of muscles in the shoulders and arms after awakening, often starting in childhood. Study characteristics We searched scientific databases for clinical trials comparing the antiepileptic medication, topiramate, with placebo (a pretend treatment) or another antiepileptic drug in people with JME. We wanted to evaluate how well topiramate worked and if it had any side effects. Key results We included and analyzed three randomized controlled trials...

Omega-3 fatty acids for depression in adults

Wed, 11/24/2021 - 17:01
Omega-3 fatty acids for depression in adults Why is this review important? Major depressive disorder (MDD) is characterised by depressed mood or a markedly decreased pleasure or interest in all activities, or both. It has negative impacts on the individual and on society, often over the long term. One possible treatment for MDD is n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3PUFAs), also known as omega-3 oils, naturally found in fatty fish, in some other seafood and in some nuts and seeds. Various lines of evidence suggest that n-3PUFAs may impact on depressive symptoms, but a lot of studies have...

Non-corticosteroid adjuvant therapies for bacterial meningitis

Tue, 11/23/2021 - 17:01
Non-corticosteroid adjuvant therapies for bacterial meningitis Review question We wanted to find out if adjuvant therapies (therapies used in addition to standard treatment methods) other than corticosteroids (a type of anti-inflammatory drug) are better or worse than standard treatment (antibiotics, used with or without corticosteroids) alone or with a placebo (dummy treatment) in treating people with acute bacterial meningitis (a bacterial infection of the membranes that surround and protect the brain). To answer this question, we reviewed the available evidence on the effect of adjuvant...

Providing information to stroke survivors and their carers

Tue, 11/23/2021 - 17:01
Providing information to stroke survivors and their carers What was the review about? We reviewed the evidence about the effects of providing information to people after stroke. These were people who have had a stroke or mini-stroke (transient ischaemic attack (TIA)), or their carers, such as friends and family. We mainly looked at the effect on their knowledge of stroke and stroke care, their mood and their quality of life. Background A stroke is a sudden loss of brain function caused by lack of blood supply. Stroke can lead to death or physical and mental problems. It can have a major...

Treatment using environmental enrichment for supporting rehabilitation following stroke and other brain injuries which do not get worse over time (non-progressive brain injury)

Tue, 11/23/2021 - 09:01
Treatment using environmental enrichment for supporting rehabilitation following stroke and other brain injuries which do not get worse over time (non-progressive brain injury) Background Rehabilitation helps with recovery after stroke and other non-progressive brain injuries through therapy. However, outside of therapy hours, people may have very little to keep them stimulated. Environmental enrichment is a relatively new concept in rehabilitation where the environment itself is designed to be engaging and to include physical, thinking, and social activities like exercises and games. For...

Checklists and specialist teams to recognise and manage sick people in hospital

Tue, 11/23/2021 - 00:01
Checklists and specialist teams to recognise and manage sick people in hospital What was the aim of the review? Adults in hospital who become unwell need to be identified quickly by clinical staff as requiring help. One way to do this is for doctors and nurses working on hospital wards to use a checklist of vital signs (e.g. blood pressure, pulse) to help them to recognise signs that patients are getting worse. These checklists are then used to refer patients to specialist teams of doctors and nurses for rapid assessment and treatment. We conducted this review to understand if using a...

Enteral lipid supplements for the prevention and treatment of parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease in infants

Tue, 11/23/2021 - 00:01
Enteral lipid supplements for the prevention and treatment of parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease in infants This is a protocol for a Cochrane Review (intervention). The objectives are as follows: To determine the efficacy and safety of enteral lipid supplementation in the prevention and treatment of parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease in infants. This is a protocol....

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