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The effects of educational or regulatory policies targeting medicine prescribers

Wed, 11/13/2019 - 11:01
The aim of this Cochrane Review was to assess the effects of policies targeting people prescribing medicines. The review authors collected and analysed all relevant studies to answer this question and found two studies. This review is one of a series of planned or completed reviews that look at the

Biofeedback for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome

Tue, 11/12/2019 - 11:01
Review Question We reviewed the evidence for the effect of biofeedback therapy on the management of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Background IBS is a common disorder that includes both abdominal pain and changes in stool frequency or consistency. Biofeedback is a therapy in which participants use

Prostanoids in pulmonary hypertension of the newborn

Fri, 11/08/2019 - 13:41
Review question Are prostanoids or their derivatives effective in the treatment of pulmonary hypertension in the newborn? Background Persistent pulmonary hypertension of the neonate (PPHN) is a life-threatening condition. Before birth, a baby’s nourishment and oxygen are obtained through the

Human milk-derived fortifier in preterm infants fed with all breast milk

Thu, 11/07/2019 - 19:01
Review question: In preterm infants fed only breast milk, does the use of extra nutrients (to provide extra protein and energy) made from human milk compared to nutrients from cow's milk decrease the chances of illnesses, death or improve growth? Background: Preterm infants fed with breast

Xiao Chai Hu Tang, a Chinese herbal medicine formula, for chronic hepatitis B

Thu, 11/07/2019 - 17:01
Review question To assess the benefits and harms of Xiao Chai Hu Tang formula versus placebo or no intervention in people with chronic hepatitis B virus infection. Background Chronic hepatitis B virus infection is a common liver disease, associated with high morbidity (illness) and death. It causes

Community-based maternal and newborn educational care packages for improving neonatal health and survival in low- and middle-income countries

Tue, 11/05/2019 - 03:01
Review question Is community health educational intervention for newborn care effective in improving neonatal health and survival in low- and middle-income countries? Background In low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), health service utilisation is low and neonatal mortality and morbidity are

Intranasal corticosteroids for non-allergic rhinitis

Sat, 11/02/2019 - 01:01
Review question We wanted to find out whether intranasal corticosteroids (steroids applied into the nose) are effective for the treatment of rhinitis that is not caused by allergy. Background Non-allergic rhinitis is a chronic disease of the nose, which is not caused by infection or allergies.

Early interventions for people at risk of developing psychosis

Fri, 11/01/2019 - 10:01
Review question Is there high-quality evidence indicating that interventions for people at risk of developing psychosis are effective? Background Psychoses are serious mental conditions characterised by a loss of contact with reality. The first clear episode of psychosis can be preceded by a &#039

Oxandrolone for growth hormone-treated girls aged up to 18 years with Turner syndrome

Wed, 10/30/2019 - 15:01
Review question What are the effects of giving oxandrolone to growth hormone-treated girls aged up to 18 years with Turner syndrome? Background Turner syndrome is a genetic disorder of girls with a chromosomal anomaly where all or part of one of the two X chromosomes is missing or changed. Turner

Early versus delayed feeding through a tube for critically ill adults in intensive care, with or without extra nutrition into a vein

Wed, 10/30/2019 - 15:01
Background Enteral nutrition involves giving liquid nutrition by a tube directly into the stomach or small intestine. Current clinical practice guidelines recommend nutrition support within 48 hours of injury or admission to an intensive care unit (ICU). It is seen as an essential part of the

PETTICOAT technique versus standard TEVAR for complicated type B aortic dissection

Wed, 10/30/2019 - 12:01
Background The aorta is the largest blood vessel in the body, delivering blood from the heart to the brain, organs and extremities. Aortic dissection is a separation of the aortic wall, caused by injuries that result in blood to flow into the vessel's wall. The ascending aorta starts at the

How does real-time video counselling compare to telephone counselling for helping people quit smoking?

Tue, 10/29/2019 - 11:01
Background Video communication software like Skype and FaceTime allows counsellors to see and hear people over the Internet to help them quit smoking. Video counselling could help large numbers of people to quit smoking because more than four billion people use the Internet, and video communication

Interventions for involving older patients with more than one long-term health problem in decision-making during primary care consultations

Mon, 10/28/2019 - 09:01
Background The number of older people with more than one long-term health problem is steadily increasing worldwide. Such individuals can have complicated healthcare needs. Although they frequently want to be involved in making decisions about their health care, they are less often involved than

Stopping feeds for prevention of transfusion-associated necrotising enterocolitis in preterm infants

Mon, 10/28/2019 - 00:01
Review question In preterm infants, does stopping feeds around the time of a packed red blood cell transfusion result in decreased risk of developing necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) or death? Background NEC is a serious inflammatory gut disease that is associated with high rates of morbidity and

Advantages and problems of a specific nerve block in adults undergoing knee surgery

Sat, 10/26/2019 - 09:01
Background Postoperative pain following knee surgery continues to be a relevant healthcare problem. Combinations of different analgesics are the best way to treat postoperative pain. One way is to block specific nerves (called regional anaesthesia) that are responsible for pain development. For

Fortification of rice with vitamins and minerals for addressing micronutrient malnutrition

Fri, 10/25/2019 - 16:01
What is the aim of this review? The aim of this Cochrane Review was to assess whether rice fortification with one or more vitamins and minerals in the general population aged two years or older improves nutritional status. Key messages Fortification of rice with iron alone or in combination with

Medical interventions for chronic inflammation of the nose and sinuses in cystic fibrosis

Wed, 10/23/2019 - 02:01
Review question We reviewed the evidence for the effect of medical interventions for chronic rhinosinusitis in people with cystic fibrosis. Background Chronic rhinosinusitis is long-term infection and inflammation of the nasal cavity and air-filled spaces around the eyes and nose. Cystic fibrosis

Palliative care interventions for people with multiple sclerosis

Tue, 10/22/2019 - 05:01
Objective To assess the effects (benefits and harms) of palliative care interventions compared to usual care for people with any form of multiple sclerosis: relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS), secondary-progressive MS (SPMS) and primary-progressive MS (PPMS). We also aimed to compare the effects of

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for assisted reproductive technology

Sat, 10/19/2019 - 20:01
Review question Researchers reviewed the evidence about the effect of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) as co-treatments when applied in infertile women undergoing assisted reproduction. Background Assisted reproductive technologies (ART) include techniques used for treating

Continuous delivery of a local anaesthetic around the wound to treat pain after bowel surgery through a vertical cut in the abdomen

Fri, 10/18/2019 - 23:01
Background People with bowel disease can be treated with surgery to remove a part of the bowel (colorectal resection). A long vertical cut in the abdomen (midline laparotomy) is often required. Recovery after this type of surgery can be slow and painful. Continuous injection of a local anaesthetic