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Individualized versus standard diet fortification for growth and development in very low birth weight infants receiving human milk

Mon, 11/23/2020 - 17:01
Review question: does individualized rather than standard, non-individualized addition of nutrients and calories to breast milk feeds safely improve growth and other outcomes in preterm infants? Background: preterm infants are at risk for poor growth following birth. Breast milk reduces their risk

Using mobile phones to keep track of medicines and notify superiors when more are needed

Fri, 11/20/2020 - 21:01
What is the aim of this review? In this Cochrane Review, we aimed to assess if health workers would have better access to medicines and other supplies, if they used mobile phones or other mobile devices to keep track of the amount of supplies they had available, and to notify superiors when they

Comparison of different protein concentrations of human milk fortifier for promoting growth and neurological development in preterm infants

Fri, 11/20/2020 - 04:01
Review question Among preterm infants, does the amount of protein used to fortify breast milk feeds result in any difference in growth and neurodevelopmental (development of the brain to improve performance or functioning (e.g. intelligence, reading ability, social skills, memory, attention or

How accurate are routine laboratory tests for diagnosis of COVID-19?

Thu, 11/19/2020 - 16:01
What are routine laboratory tests? Routine laboratory tests are blood tests that assess the health status of a patient. Tests include counts of different types of white blood cells (these help the body fight infection), and detection of markers (proteins) that indicate organ damage, and general

Does pioglitazone prevent or delay type 2 diabetes and its complications in people at risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus?

Thu, 11/19/2020 - 14:01
What is type 2 diabetes? Type 2 diabetes, also known as adult‐onset diabetes, is the most common type of diabetes. It prevents the body from using insulin properly- insulin is a hormone that helps the body to regulate blood sugar levels. People with type 2 diabetes may suffer long-term effects

Which treatments work best for advanced stomach cancer that has not responded to standard chemotherapy?

Thu, 11/19/2020 - 11:01
What is advanced stomach cancer? Gastric (stomach) cancer usually begins in the mucous-producing cells lining the stomach. Oesophago-gastric junction (OGJ) cancer starts where the food pipe (oesophagus) joins the stomach. Advanced cancer is cancer that has spread to nearby tissues, or to another

Mechanically assisted walking training for children with cerebral palsy

Tue, 11/17/2020 - 23:01
Background Children with cerebral palsy have difficulty walking independently. It is thought that they might benefit from mechanically assisted walking training compared with no walking or overground walking (i.e. without mechanical support). Mechanically assisted walking training includes using

What are the benefits and risks of using antibiotics as well as cleaning by a dental care professional to treat gum disease?

Mon, 11/16/2020 - 21:01
Why is this question important? Gum disease is a common condition in which the gums become swollen, sore or infected. It is caused by bacteria that accumulate on gums and teeth. Diseased gums may bleed when people brush their teeth, and may cause bad breath. If gum disease is not treated, teeth can

Cognitive behavioural therapy for anxiety in children and young people

Mon, 11/16/2020 - 12:01
Why is this review important? Many children and young people experience problems with anxiety. Children and young people with anxiety disorders are more likely than their peers to have difficulty with friendships, family life, and school, and to develop mental health problems later in life.

After using shock waves to break up kidney stones, do medicines called alpha‑blockers help to get rid of the stone fragments?

Thu, 11/12/2020 - 02:01
What are kidney stones? Waste products in the blood can sometimes form crystals that collect inside the kidneys. These can build up over time to form a hard stone-like lump, called a kidney stone. Kidney stones can develop in both kidneys especially in people with certain medical conditions or who

Pharmacological treatment for continuous spike-wave during slow wave sleep syndrome and Landau-Kleffner syndrome

Wed, 11/11/2020 - 10:01
What was studied in the review? Continuous spike-wave during slow wave sleep syndrome (CSWS) is characterised by a regression of mental function and clinical seizures, and usually shows up in children around five years old. Landau-Kleffner syndrome usually shows up in children aged three to eight

Band ligation versus sclerotherapy for primary prophylaxis of oesophageal varices in children

Mon, 11/09/2020 - 06:01
Background Portal hypertension is defined as an increase in the blood pressure within a system of veins (a type of blood vessel) called the portal venous system, which drains blood from the gastrointestinal tract (gut) and spleen into the liver. Portal hypertension commonly accompanies advanced

What is the best way to support resilience and mental well-being in frontline healthcare professionals during and after a pandemic?

Thu, 11/05/2020 - 13:01
What is ‘resilience’? Working as a 'frontline' health or social care professional during a global disease pandemic, like COVID-19, can be very stressful. Over time, the negative effects of stress can lead to mental health problems such as depression and anxiety, which, in turn, may affect

Ivabradine as adjuvant treatment for chronic heart failure

Wed, 11/04/2020 - 21:01
What is the aim of this review? We investigated the effects of ivabradine (either as short-term treatment (< 6 months) or long-term treatment (≥ 6 months) in people with heart failure and preserved (HFpEF, left ventricular ejection fraction is 50% or higher) or reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF,

Rapid tests for diagnosing malaria caused by in people living in areas where malaria is very common

Wed, 11/04/2020 - 15:01
What is the aim of the review? Malaria infection is caused mainly by two species of malaria parasite: Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax. The aim of this review was to evaluate rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) to diagnose P vivax infection. Why are rapid tests for P vivax malaria important?

Myofunctional therapy (oropharyngeal- mouth and throat- exercises) for people with obstructive sleep apnoea

Tue, 11/03/2020 - 19:01
Background Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is a sleeping disorder. People with OSA have periods where their breathing stops during the night. OSA can cause snoring, unsatisfactory rest, daytime sleepiness, low energy or fatigue, tiredness, initial insomnia and morning headaches. Continuous positive

Is extending the treatment time by specialist mental health teams better for people with recent-onset psychosis?

Mon, 11/02/2020 - 12:01
What is psychosis? Psychosis describes conditions affecting the mind, in which people have trouble distinguishing what is real from what is not real. This might involve seeing or hearing things that other people cannot see or hear (hallucinations), or believing things that are not true (delusions).

Is recent-onset psychosis best treated by a specialist mental health team?

Mon, 11/02/2020 - 12:01
What is psychosis? Psychosis describes conditions affecting the mind, in which people have trouble distinguishing what is real from what is not real. This might involve seeing or hearing things that other people cannot see or hear (hallucinations), or believing things that are not true (delusions).

Physical activity interventions for people with congenital heart disease

Wed, 10/28/2020 - 15:01
Review question This review aimed to gather evidence for the use of any physical activity intervention for people with congenital heart disease. We aimed to compare interventions including exercise training, physical activity promotion or lung training with no intervention (usual care). Background

Infection risk after surgery in people using medications for inflammatory bowel disease

Sat, 10/24/2020 - 14:01
Background More than 1.2 million individuals in North America are affected by inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). IBD includes Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. IBD is a condition that involves inflammation in the large or small intestine(s) or both, resulting in symptoms such as diarrhea