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Screening for type 2 diabetes mellitus

Fri, 05/29/2020 - 18:01
Review question What are the health effects of screening compared to not screening for type 2 diabetes mellitus? Background Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder characterised by high blood sugar which can lead to complications like kidney and eye disease. It can develop at any age but

How accurate are screening tests in identifying those at risk of developing primary angle closure glaucoma?

Fri, 05/29/2020 - 04:01
Why is improving the diagnosis of primary angle closure glaucoma important? Glaucoma is a group of eye diseases that cause damage to the optic nerve at the back of the eye. If untreated, glaucoma can lead to blindness. Primary angle closure glaucoma is a type of glaucoma, where the drainage route

Strategies for optimising antenatal corticosteroid administration for women with anticipated preterm birth

Tue, 05/26/2020 - 12:01
What is the issue? A pregnancy normally lasts between 37 and 40 completed weeks. If the birth takes place earlier than that and the baby is born prematurely, there is a high risk that the baby will have breathing problems and might suffer from other complications. There is also a risk that the

Non-nutritive sweeteners for diabetes mellitus

Mon, 05/25/2020 - 09:01
Review question Are non-nutritive sweeteners beneficial or harmful in people with diabetes? Background Non-nutritive sweeteners are sweetening agents having higher sweetening intensity and lower calorie content per gram compared to caloric sweeteners like sucrose or corn syrups. Both the general

Factors affecting use of nicotine replacement therapy and e-cigarettes in pregnancy

Fri, 05/22/2020 - 16:01
What was studied in this review? Nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) delivers nicotine without the harmful chemicals found in tobacco smoke. NRT helps some non-pregnant adults to stop smoking, but it does not seem to work so well in pregnancy. This may be because pregnant women generally do not use

Video calls for reducing social isolation and loneliness in older people

Fri, 05/22/2020 - 11:01
Background Coronavirus (COVID-19) is a new virus that has spread quickly throughout the world. Countries have introduced restrictions on people’s movement to protect them from COVID-19, but an unwanted result is that older people may feel lonely and isolated, which may lead to poor mental and

Milk boosters (galactagogues) for mothers breastfeeding their healthy infants born at term

Mon, 05/18/2020 - 15:01
What is the issue? We set out to determine the ability of milk boosters taken by mouth (medicine, herb or food) to increase milk production in breastfeeding mothers of healthy infants born at term. Poor milk supply is often given as the reason for early supplementation and weaning sooner than

Adalimumab for maintenance of remission in Crohn's disease

Fri, 05/15/2020 - 23:01
What is Crohn's disease? Crohn's disease (CD) is an inflammatory disorder that can affect the whole gastrointestinal tract from the mouth to the anus. Participants can experience a wide range of symptoms related to their disease, including abdominal pain, diarrhea, weight loss, and fever.

Avatar Therapy for schizophrenia or related disorders

Fri, 05/15/2020 - 18:01
Review question Is Avatar Therapy an effective add-on treatment for people with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder? Background Auditory hallucination is perceiving voices when there is no external stimulus. Around 70% of people with schizophrenia experience these. Medication may help cause

Plasma from people who have recovered from COVID-19 to treat individuals with COVID-19

Thu, 05/14/2020 - 14:26
Background Coronavirus (COVID-19) is a highly infectious respiratory illness caused by a new strain of virus. The outbreak has spread rapidly on a global scale. People infected with this virus may not show signs of the disease, others may develop symptoms, including fever, cough, shortness of

Drugs that target abnormal growth protein in high-grade, aggressive brain tumours

Tue, 05/12/2020 - 10:01
Background Glioblastomas are highly aggressive brain tumours. They often appear quickly with devastating effects depending on the part of the brain they are located. They often affect previously well and high functioning individuals without any ‘warning signs’. There are no known risk factors. The

Anti-inflammatory medications for preventing major heart events and strokes following ischaemic stroke (stroke due to a clot) or mini-stroke

Mon, 05/11/2020 - 21:01
Review question Do anti-inflammatory medications have a role in preventing future serious heart conditions or stroke in people who have previously had a stroke or a transient ischaemic attack (TIA, or 'mini-stroke') as the result of a blood clot? Background Anti-inflammatory medications

Use of treatments to dislodge soft foods stuck between the throat and the stomach to try to avoid the need for an endoscopy

Mon, 05/11/2020 - 15:01
Review question Can a period of observation, treatment with swallowed substances, or treatment with substances given via the blood help to dislodge soft foods that are stuck between the throat and the stomach in order to avoid the need for an endoscopic procedure to clear it? Background Food can

Oral protein-based nutritional supplement in people with chronic kidney disease requiring dialysis

Mon, 05/11/2020 - 07:01
What is the issue? People with chronic kidney disease requiring dialysis are at risk of developing malnutrition for many reasons and often do not eat enough because their appetite is poor. Oral nutritional supplements are commonly provided to people who do not eat enough to meet their needs.

Interventions for helping older adults prescribed multiple medications to use and take their medications

Fri, 05/08/2020 - 13:01
Background: Older people are often prescribed multiple medications, which can be challenging to manage. Medication-taking errors and non-adherence (under-use or over-use of medication) can lead to negative health outcomes. Assisting older people to better use and adhere to their medications could

Screening strategies for hypertension

Thu, 05/07/2020 - 09:01
Review question What effects do the different ways of screening for hypertension (mass, targeted, or opportunistic) have in decreasing illness and death? Background Hypertension is a long-term non-communicable disease (NCD), also known as high, raised, or elevated blood pressure. Blood pressure is

In-bag manual versus uncontained power morcellation for laparoscopic myomectomy

Wed, 05/06/2020 - 16:01
Review question Cochrane authors reviewed the effectiveness and safety of in-bag manual morcellation compared to uncontained power morcellation during laparoscopic myomectomy. The primary outcome of the review was a composite of intraoperative (during surgery) complications. Background Myomectomy

Comparing different injection frequencies for neovascular age-related macular degeneration

Wed, 05/06/2020 - 16:01
What was the aim of this review? 
 The aim of this Cochrane Review was to find out if anti- vascular endothelial grown factor (anti-VEGF) injections for neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) can be given less frequently than every month. Key messages 
 This review found that people

Indoor bathing in salt water followed by exposure to artificial ultraviolet B light for chronic plaque psoriasis

Tue, 05/05/2020 - 11:01
Review question We reviewed the evidence about the effect of indoor bathing in salt water for adults with chronic plaque psoriasis followed by artificial ultraviolet B (UVB) light treatment. We evaluated two different comparisons: 1) Salt bath with UVB versus other treatment without UVB; eligible

Psychological therapies for people with borderline personality disorder

Mon, 05/04/2020 - 16:01
Background People affected by borderline personality disorder (BPD) often have difficulties with controlling their impulses and emotions. They may have a poor self-image, experience rapid changes in mood, harm themselves and find it hard to engage in harmonious interpersonal relationships.