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Measures implemented in the school setting to contain the COVID-19 pandemic: a rapid review

Mon, 01/17/2022 - 10:01
Measures implemented in the school setting to contain the COVID-19 pandemic: a rapid review What was studied in the review? In order to reduce the spread of the virus that causes COVID-19, many governments and societies put mitigation measures in place in schools. However, we do not know whether these measures work with regards to reducing the spread of the virus, or how these measures affect other aspects of life, such as education, the economy or society as a whole. What are measures implemented in the school setting? Measures in the school setting can be grouped into the following four...

Prophylactic antibiotics for uterine evacuation procedures to treat miscarriage

Thu, 01/13/2022 - 11:01
Prophylactic antibiotics for uterine evacuation procedures to treat miscarriage This is a protocol for a Cochrane Review (intervention). The objectives are as follows: The objective of this review is to evaluate the effectiveness of routine antibiotic prophylaxis to women undergoing uterine evacuation procedures to treat miscarriage. This is a protocol....

Exercise training for adults receiving dialysis treatments

Wed, 01/12/2022 - 02:01
Exercise training for adults receiving dialysis treatments What is the issue? People undergoing dialysis treatments are at higher risk of cardiovascular disease and depression, have a lower quality of life and limited survival than the general population. Furthermore, many people undergoing dialysis have difficulty performing daily activities because they lack the physical capacity and strength to do so. Multiple trials have assessed the potential for exercise training to improve the condition of adults undergoing dialysis, but no consensus has been reached. What did we do? We searched the...

Gut microbial biomarkers for predicting adverse outcomes in people with chronic kidney disease

Wed, 01/12/2022 - 02:01
Gut microbial biomarkers for predicting adverse outcomes in people with chronic kidney disease This is a protocol for a Cochrane Review (prognosis). The objectives are as follows: To (a) identify the gut microbial biomarkers in patients with CKD, on dialysis, and with kidney transplants; (b) determine whether these biomarkers are associated independently with adverse patient-relevant outcomes leading to progression of CKD stages 1 to 5; and (c) explore sources of heterogeneity. Investigation of sources of heterogeneity between studies We will explore potential sources of heterogeneity that...

Factors that impact on recruitment to vaccine trials during a pandemic or epidemic: a qualitative evidence synthesis

Tue, 01/11/2022 - 18:01
Factors that impact on recruitment to vaccine trials during a pandemic or epidemic: a qualitative evidence synthesis This is a protocol for a Cochrane Review (qualitative). The objectives are as follows: This is a protocol for a Cochrane Review (qualitative). The review aims to explore the factors associated with a person’s decision to take part in a pandemic or epidemic vaccine trial. This is a protocol....

Dose reduction and discontinuation of disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) for juvenile idiopathic arthritis

Tue, 01/11/2022 - 02:01
Dose reduction and discontinuation of disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) for juvenile idiopathic arthritis This is a protocol for a Cochrane Review (intervention). The objectives are as follows: To assess the benefits and harms of dose reduction or discontinuation of disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs in children and young people with clinically inactive juvenile idiopathic arthritis. This is a common protocol for two separate reviews: one on systemic onset juvenile idiopathic arthritis and one on non-systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis. A secondary objective is to keep...

Topical repellents for malaria prevention

Mon, 01/10/2022 - 12:01
Topical repellents for malaria prevention This is a protocol for a Cochrane Review (intervention). The objectives are as follows: To assess the effect of topical repellents alone or in combination with other background interventions for reducing malaria incidence in high-risk and non-high-risk populations living in endemic areas. This is a protocol....

The effectiveness and safety of treatments for recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (thrush)

Mon, 01/10/2022 - 12:01
The effectiveness and safety of treatments for recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (thrush) Review question Cochrane authors set out to investigate the effectiveness and safety of drug treatments or non-drug treatments (such as complementary and alternative medicines) for women with recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (thrush). Background Thrush of the vaginal/vulvar area is caused by Candida, a form of yeast that is commonly found in the vagina as part of normal flora without causing symptoms. For unknown reasons, Candida can start growing and cause symptoms of vulvovaginal candidiasis...

Systemic therapies for preventing or treating aromatase inhibitor-induced musculoskeletal symptoms in early breast cancer

Mon, 01/10/2022 - 11:01
Systemic therapies for preventing or treating aromatase inhibitor-induced musculoskeletal symptoms in early breast cancer What was the aim of this review? Hormonal therapy with aromatase inhibitors is used to treat a type of early breast cancer (hormone-receptor positive) in women after the menopause. AI cause side effects including joint and muscle pains and stiffness (aromatase inhibitors musculoskeletal symptoms, or so-called AIMSS), which may cause some women to stop taking their aromatase inhibitors, and potentially worsen survival. The aim of this Cochrane Review was to examine whether...

Self-management for people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

Mon, 01/10/2022 - 09:01
Self-management for people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease Review question We looked at the current evidence on the effects of self-management interventions for people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In particular, we assessed their effectiveness on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and hospital admissions related to COPD. We also wanted to assess whether self-management interventions are safe by evaluating the number of deaths. Background COPD is a common and long-term lung condition that slowly worsens over the years, and causes symptoms such as...

Catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation

Sun, 01/09/2022 - 14:01
Catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation This is a protocol for a Cochrane Review (intervention). The objectives are as follows: To determine the efficacy and safety of any catheter ablation in people with first diagnosed, paroxysmal, persistent, and long-standing persistent atrial fibrillation versus any medical therapy. This is a protocol....

Electroconvulsive therapy for preventing relapse and recurrence in people with depression

Sat, 01/08/2022 - 10:01
Electroconvulsive therapy for preventing relapse and recurrence in people with depression This is a protocol for a Cochrane Review (intervention). The objectives are as follows: To assess the benefits and harms of ECT for preventing relapse and recurrence of depression in children, adolescents, adults, and older people with major depressive disorder. This is a protocol....

Proton pump inhibitor treatment started before endoscopy in upper gastrointestinal bleeding

Fri, 01/07/2022 - 23:01
Proton pump inhibitor treatment started before endoscopy in upper gastrointestinal bleeding Background Bleeding from the oesophagus (the canal that connects the throat to the stomach), stomach or duodenum (the first part of the small intestine) is a common medical emergency. Research has suggested that reducing the amount of acid in the stomach may help to control the bleeding, but it is unknown if it is beneficial to start such treatment early; that is, before endoscopy (the examination of the oesophagus, stomach and duodenum with a fibreoptic camera). Review question We reviewed the...

Targeted treatment of non-small cell lung cancer with an anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene mutation

Fri, 01/07/2022 - 17:01
Targeted treatment of non-small cell lung cancer with an anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene mutation Background The most common type of lung cancer is non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). About 5% of NSCLC will be driven by a gene mutation known as anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK). Targeted treatments for those with advanced (not curable) ALK-mutated NSCLC cancer have been developed and found to be more effective than chemotherapy. The first ALK inhibitor to be developed was crizotinib. Newer ALK-targeted drugs have also been developed and include ceritinib, alectinib, brigatinib,...

Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation for post-traumatic stress disorder in adults

Fri, 01/07/2022 - 14:01
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation for post-traumatic stress disorder in adults This is a protocol for a Cochrane Review (intervention). The objectives are as follows: To assess the safety and efficacy of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) for the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in adults. This is a protocol....

Antithrombotics after infra-inguinal peripheral endovascular treatment

Fri, 01/07/2022 - 14:01
Antithrombotics after infra-inguinal peripheral endovascular treatment This is a protocol for a Cochrane Review (intervention). The objectives are as follows: To determine the effects of antithrombotic agents compared with each other, with placebo, or with no treatment, in people with infra-inguinal (below the anatomical level of the inguinal ligament) peripheral arterial disease who are undergoing peripheral endovascular treatment. This is a protocol....

Lifestyle and dietary interventions for Ménière’s disease

Thu, 01/06/2022 - 15:01
Lifestyle and dietary interventions for Ménière’s disease This is a protocol for a Cochrane Review (intervention). The objectives are as follows: To assess the benefits and harms of lifestyle interventions for Ménière's disease. This is a protocol....

Do heated tobacco products help people to quit smoking, are they safe for this purpose, and have they led to falls in smoking rates?

Thu, 01/06/2022 - 10:01
Do heated tobacco products help people to quit smoking, are they safe for this purpose, and have they led to falls in smoking rates? Key messages Heated tobacco probably exposes people to fewer toxins than cigarettes, but possibly more than not using any tobacco. Falls in cigarette sales appeared to speed up following the launch of heated tobacco in Japan, but we are uncertain whether this is caused by people switching from cigarettes to heated tobacco. We need more independently funded research into whether heated tobacco helps people stop smoking, whether it results in unwanted effects,...

Improving the outcome of people with primary brain tumours and their carers using early palliative interventions

Thu, 01/06/2022 - 10:01
Improving the outcome of people with primary brain tumours and their carers using early palliative interventions Why this question is important Brain tumours can have a significant impact on people and their carers. Brain tumours can impair people's physical, neurocognitive, and social functioning, which can affect the whole family, particularly informal caregivers, who often receive inadequate support. There is evidence in other cancers that providing access to palliative support in the early stages of a person's illness can help to improve their, and their caregivers', quality of life....

Low levels of sugar to prevent cardiovascular disease

Wed, 01/05/2022 - 21:01
Low levels of sugar to prevent cardiovascular disease Background Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a group of disorders affecting the heart and blood vessels and the number one cause of death worldwide. It is important to detect modifiable risk factors and find strategies to prevent CVD. There are several established modifiable risk factors for developing CVD, one of them being eating an unhealthy diet rich in sugar. Sugar can be divided in two categories; sugars naturally occurring in food and sugars that are added to food. A high level of added sugar intake is suggested to cause weight gain...

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