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Background More than 1.2 million individuals in North America are affected by inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). IBD includes Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. IBD is a condition that involves inflammation in the large or small intestine(s) or both, resulting in symptoms such as diarrhea
What are the benefits and risks of using virtual reality in a healthcare setting to distract children from pain?
Why is this question important? Medical procedures, such as health examinations or injections, can cause children to experience pain. In these situations, it is common practice to distract children using toys or play, in order to minimise distress and fear of pain. One form of distraction that can
How renin inhibitors (RIs) compare with angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors for treating hypertension
Review question We determined how renin inhibitors (RIs) compared with angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors for treating hypertension. Background Hypertension is a worldwide public-health challenge associated with high levels of occurrence and risks of circulatory and kidney disease. RIs
Minimally invasive parathyroidectomy versus bilateral neck exploration for primary hyperparathyroidism in adults
Review question Is minimally invasive parathyroidectomy a better surgical treatment compared to classic bilateral neck exploration for people with sporadic primary hyperparathyroidism? Background Primary hyperparathyroidism is a condition where one or more of the four parathyroid glands (pea-sized
What medicines, taken by mouth or given as an injection, work best to treat severe allergic eye disease in children and young people under 16 years old?
What is allergic eye disease? An immune response is how the body recognises and defends itself against substances that appear harmful, usually by producing specific blood proteins (antibodies) against them. An allergy is a reaction by the body's immune system to a particular substance (an
What is the issue? Metastatic breast cancer occurs when the cancer has spread to areas of the body beyond the breast and nearby lymph nodes. Although metastatic breast cancer is generally not curable, it is widely accepted that women with metastatic disease should receive some form of chemotherapy
Why are people sick after an operation? Feeling sick (nausea) or being sick (vomiting) is a common unwanted effect of general anaesthesia—medicine that makes people unconscious and unresponsive so they don't move or feel pain during an operation. Most unwanted effects of general anaesthesia,
What is the aim of this review? House modifications, such as screening (covering potential house entry points for mosquitoes with netting or mesh), or the use of alternative construction materials, may contribute to reducing the burden of malaria. They work by blocking mosquitoes from entering
Review question How effective is targeted drug treatment for patients with kidney cancer which has spread compared with other targeted drug treatments? Background Kidney cancer which has spread was treated over the last decade with a group of drugs called targeted therapy which act specifically on
What is the aim of this review? The aim of this Cochrane Review was to find out whether implementation strategies to encourage healthcare professionals to use evidence in stroke rehabilitation are effective. Examples of implementation strategies include education workshops, educational materials or
Do measures that aim to reduce aerosol production during dental procedures prevent the transmission of infectious diseases?
Why is this question important? Most dental care procedures create tiny drops of liquid that float in the air, called aerosols. For example, to remove the film of bacteria (plaque) that builds on teeth, dentists use scaling machines (scalers). Scalers vibrate at high speed and use a flow of water
What are the benefits and risks of corticosteroids for preventing inflammation in children who undergo heart surgery involving a heart-lung machine?
Why is this question important? Children who are born with a heart defect, or who develop heart disease after birth, may need heart surgery. To operate, surgeons often need to stop the heart and lungs temporarily. To keep the child alive, they use a heart-lung machine that takes over the work of
Prevention of blood clots in adults diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia and treated with asparaginase-based chemotherapy
What is the aim of this review? The aim of this Cochrane Review was to find out whether currently available medications for prevention of blood clots have an appreciable balance between benefits and harms in adults with a subtype of blood cancer called acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) treated
What is the aim of this review? Randomised trials are needed for understanding if and how different healthcare interventions (such as medicines, types of surgeries, health promotion activities, etc.) work or not. Getting people to take part in trials can be difficult and if not enough people
Review question Does supplementation of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) improve physical and neurological development and other health outcomes in term and preterm neonates? Background Although leucine, isoleucine and valine—a group of essential amino acids—play an important role in neonatal
What is the issue? People with long-term kidney disease or chronic kidney disease (CKD) often develop high blood pressure (hypertension), and those with advanced CKD need dialysis when their kidneys are no longer unable to function. Treatment for hypertension is often challenging for people with
Why is this question important? People with suspected COVID-19 need to know quickly whether they are infected, so that they can self-isolate, receive treatment, and inform close contacts. Currently, formal diagnosis of COVID-19 infection requires laboratory analysis of blood or nose and throat
Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of hospital-based specialist palliative care (HSPC) for adults with advanced illness and their unpaid caregivers
Review question How effective is hospital-based specialist palliative care for adults with a terminal illness and their unpaid caregivers, and is it cost-effective? Why is this question important? Palliative care aims to improve the quality of life of people who have a terminal illness (a disease
Why this question is important The body’s defence (immune) system fights injury or infection by sending white blood cells to surround and protect the affected area. This causes redness and swelling, called inflammation. Vasculitis is an inflammation of the blood vessels. In vasculitis, instead of
Cervical stitch (cerclage) in combination with other treatments for preventing premature or early birth of single babies
We assessed randomised controlled trial evidence on the effects of cervical stitch in combination with other treatments for prolonging pregnancy in women who were at high risk of pregnancy loss and were carrying a single baby. Additional treatments were used in the same time period as when the