Cochrane features en

What are the effects of endoscopic sphincterotomy for adults with biliary sphincter of Oddi dysfunction?

2 months ago
What are the effects of endoscopic sphincterotomy for adults with biliary sphincter of Oddi dysfunction? Key messages – We do not know if endoscopic sphincterotomy compared with sham operation or dual endoscopic sphincterotomy benefits adults with biliary sphincter of Oddi dysfunction, or changes serious or non-serious unwanted effects, quality of life, and liver function. – We have no data comparing endoscopic sphincterotomy with sham operation, endoscopic papillary balloon dilation,or dual endoscopic sphincterotomyon deaths, non-serious unwanted effects, and hospital stay. – No trial...

What do people think of strategies to identify cases of tuberculosis in low- and middle-income countries?

2 months ago
What do people think of strategies to identify cases of tuberculosis in low- and middle-income countries? What is active case finding? Active case finding (ACF) involves health workers going out into communities to identify people with tuberculosis who otherwise might not have sought help in clinics (e.g. because they live too far from health facilities or cannot afford to get there). The aim of ACF is to find people who have tuberculosis and provide them with treatment, in order to reduce the spread of disease and improve the health of infected people. What did we want to find out? We aimed...

Prebiotics for treatment of ulcerative colitis

2 months ago
Prebiotics for treatment of ulcerative colitis Key messages We found that prebiotics may not differ from placebo in preventing relapses of ulcerative colitis. For adults in remission, prebiotics may result in more side effects than placebo. The evidence was of poor quality for remission, improvement in disease activity, inflammation, and quality of life, therefore we could not reach any conclusions for these outcomes. There needs to be more high-quality research on this topic before any firm conclusions can be reached. What is ulcerative colitis? Ulcerative colitis is one of the two main...

Are psychological therapies effective in reducing depression in older adults living in long-term care?

2 months ago
Are psychological therapies effective in reducing depression in older adults living in long-term care? Key messages – Psychological therapies (sometimes known as talking therapies) may treat symptoms of depression better than non-therapy approaches in older adults living in long-term care (LTC) facilities (for example, nursing or residential homes and assisted-living facilities). – Psychological therapies may also be better than non-therapy approaches for increasing quality of life and psychological well-being (an individual's emotional health and overall functioning) in the short term. –...

Identifying the most clinically effective exercise prescription for people with intermittent claudication (MAXIMISE): a component network meta-analysis with concurrent cost-effectiveness analysis

2 months ago
Identifying the most clinically effective exercise prescription for people with intermittent claudication (MAXIMISE): a component network meta-analysis with concurrent cost-effectiveness analysis This is a protocol for a Cochrane Review (intervention). The objectives are as follows: To conduct a component network meta-analysis (CNMA) comparing different SEP combinations to identify the most clinically effective exercise prescription for people with IC. To conduct an economic evaluation comparing different SEP combinations for people with IC to identify which are cost-effective. This is a...

Is face-down positioning better than other positioning after vitrectomy and gas tamponade for macula-involving rhegmatogenous retinal detachments?

2 months 1 week ago
Is face-down positioning better than other positioning after vitrectomy and gas tamponade for macula-involving rhegmatogenous retinal detachments? Key messages - There is not enough high-quality information to say whether face-down positioning should be recommended to people after surgery for retinal detachments affecting the center of the retina (the macula). - Overall, evidence from studies suggests that face-down positioning after surgery may lead to fewer complications, with less postoperative retinal displacement, outer retinal folds, and binocular diplopia (double vision with both eyes...

Does the use of antibiotics prevent leptospirosis?

2 months 1 week ago
Does the use of antibiotics prevent leptospirosis? Key message – Antibiotics probably do not reduce the chance of developing leptospirosis infection and may cause non-serious adverse events. The evidence is very limited, so our findings may change if there are more quality trials published. What is leptospirosis? Leptospirosis is a zoonotic (that is,infection that can be transmitted naturally from animals with a backbone to humans or from humans to animals with a backbone)and waterborne disease that occurs worldwide. Humans are infected when they come into contact with water, soil, or food...

Is the use of antibiotics beneficial for treating leptospirosis?

2 months 1 week ago
Is the use of antibiotics beneficial for treating leptospirosis? Key message – Antibiotics (for example, penicillin, doxycycline, azithromycin, cefotaxime, and chloramphenicol) may have no effect on mortality (death) and side effects associated with leptospirosis infection. However, due to the limited evidence, these findings may change if more trials of high quality are conducted. What is leptospirosis? Leptospirosis is a global disease transmitted from animals (cattle, pigs, horses, dogs, and rodents) to humans (called zoonotic) through contaminated water sources, soil, or food...

Newborn resuscitation with intact cord for non-vigorous term or late preterm infants

2 months 1 week ago
Newborn resuscitation with intact cord for non-vigorous term or late preterm infants This is a protocol for a Cochrane Review (intervention). The objectives are as follows: To assess the safety and efficacy of resuscitation with an intact cord compared to resuscitative care with immediate cord clamping or umbilical cord milking for non-vigorous term or late preterm neonates (≥ 35 weeks' gestation). This is a protocol....

Cognitive behavioural therapy plus standard care for first-episode and recent-onset psychosis

2 months 1 week ago
Cognitive behavioural therapy plus standard care for first-episode and recent-onset psychosis Key messages Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) is effective for reducing symptoms of schizophrenia and improving functioning in people at the beginning of the disorder. Very little information was available on the potential adverse effects connected with this intervention. Introduction Schizophrenia is a severe mental disorder because of the heavy effect of the symptoms on the daily lives of those affected. People with this illness struggle to differentiate between their own thoughts, beliefs and...

Do cancer vaccines help people with advanced non-small cell lung cancer?

2 months 1 week ago
Do cancer vaccines help people with advanced non-small cell lung cancer? Key messages - The vaccines evaluated in this review do not improve peoples' survival, or progression-free survival, or do so to a negligible extent. - Unwanted effects of the vaccines are not frequent. What is lung cancer? Lung cancer is one of the most common cancers worldwide. Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the most common type of lung cancer, accounting for around 87% of lung cancers. Non-small cell lung cancer is often diagnosed when it is at an advanced stage, which is associated with high death rates and a...

General strengthening exercise for chronic low back pain

2 months 1 week ago
General strengthening exercise for chronic low back pain This is a protocol for a Cochrane Review (intervention). The objectives are as follows: The primary objective is to investigate the benefits and harms of general strengthening exercise therapy in adults with chronic non-specific low back pain on pain intensity, functional limitations, health-related quality of life, psychological functioning, and adverse events compared to placebo, sham, or attention control and no treatment (including waitlists, control groups with no treatment provided, usual/normal care not controlled by the trial...

Comparing two methods of wound closure in stoma reversal: purse-string closure versus linear skin closure

2 months 1 week ago
Comparing two methods of wound closure in stoma reversal: purse-string closure versus linear skin closure Key messages • Purse-string skin closure (PSSC) probably reduces the risk of wound infection compared with linear skin closure (LSC). • People who have PSSC may be more satisfied with the result compared with people who have LSC. What does stoma reversal mean? An intestinal stoma is a surgically created intestinal opening on the surface of the abdomen. People with a temporary stoma will have their stoma reversed a few months after the initial operation (when the stoma was created). Up to...

Multiple perceptions about implementing hospital at home

2 months 2 weeks ago
Multiple perceptions about implementing hospital at home Key messages - When developing a Hospital at Home service, it is important to set up a straightforward process for healthcare professionals to refer patients. This includes producing clear guidelines that set out who the service is suitable for. - Hospital at Home services need a trained workforce with skills to deliver safe and effective patient-centred care in the home, with clear and consistent communication between staff, patients and caregivers. - We propose a number of questions for use by healthcare professionals and managers...

Immunoglobulin replacement to prevent infections in people with haematological malignancies and haematopoietic stem cell transplantation

2 months 2 weeks ago
Immunoglobulin replacement to prevent infections in people with haematological malignancies and haematopoietic stem cell transplantation This is a protocol for a Cochrane Review (intervention). The objectives are as follows: To assess the effects of prophylactic immunoglobulin therapy for the prevention of infections in people with haematological malignancies and post-haematopoietic stem cell transplantation. This is a protocol....

First-line systemic treatment for people with extensive-stage small cell lung cancer: a systematic review and network meta-analysis

2 months 3 weeks ago
First-line systemic treatment for people with extensive-stage small cell lung cancer: a systematic review and network meta-analysis This is a protocol for a Cochrane Review (intervention). The objectives are as follows: To evaluate the comparative effectiveness and safety of immunotherapy (anti PD‐1, anti PD‐L1, or anti CTLA-4) plus chemotherapy compared to chemotherapy alone for the first-line systemic treatment of extensive-stage small cell lung cancer with a network meta-analysis, and to identify relevant biomarkers or clinical factors. This is a protocol....
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