Cochrane features en

Can ocular antibiotics treatment prevent eye infection following a corneal abrasion?

2 months 2 weeks ago
Can ocular antibiotics treatment prevent eye infection following a corneal abrasion? What is the aim of this review? This Cochrane Review aimed to find out whether ocular (given in the eye) antibiotics treatment can prevent eye infection following a corneal abrasion. We collected and analyzed all relevant studies to answer this question and found two studies. Key messages We could not find evidence that compared antibiotics with placebo (dummy treatment) or no treatment. We could not find enough evidence to support the use of one antibiotic over another to prevent eye infections with corneal...

Is magnesium sulfate effective for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) flare-ups?

2 months 2 weeks ago
Is magnesium sulfate effective for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) flare-ups? Background COPD is a long-standing disease of the lungs that causes airway narrowing. COPD flare-ups are episodes of worsening symptoms in people diagnosed with COPD, described as exacerbations in this review. Magnesium sulfate is reported to be able to widen the airways to help breathing. Magnesium sulfate can be given as an infusion into the veins or as an inhalation via a device called a nebuliser. Some studies have shown it to be helpful as an add-on to usual care in people with COPD flare-ups....

Oral probiotics for the treatment of infantile colic

2 months 3 weeks ago
Oral probiotics for the treatment of infantile colic This is a protocol for a Cochrane Review (intervention). The objectives are as follows: To assess the effects of probiotics for infantile colic in infants younger than four months of age. This is a protocol....

How effective are dressings and topical agents in the management of wounds after surgical treatment for pilonidal sinus of the buttocks?

2 months 3 weeks ago
How effective are dressings and topical agents in the management of wounds after surgical treatment for pilonidal sinus of the buttocks? Key messages - Platelet-rich plasma (part of the participant's own blood that promotes tissue regeneration) may reduce time to wound healing compared with sterile gauze - Lietofix skin repair cream may help wounds to heal by 30 days compared with a dressing with iodine (which helps to reduce bacteria in the wound) - It is not clear whether hydrogel dressings (designed to keep the wound moist) reduce time to wound healing compared with wound cleaning with...

Topical ophthalmic anesthetics for corneal abrasions

2 months 3 weeks ago
Topical ophthalmic anesthetics for corneal abrasions This is a protocol for a Cochrane Review (intervention). The objectives are as follows: To assess the effectiveness and safety of topical ophthalmic anesthetics compared to placebo or other treatments in persons with corneal abrasions. This is a protocol....

Prophylactic antiemetics for adults receiving intravenous opioids in the acute care setting

2 months 3 weeks ago
Prophylactic antiemetics for adults receiving intravenous opioids in the acute care setting Key messages Metoclopramide did not reduce the risk of vomiting, nausea, or the need for rescue medication when provided prior to intravenous opioids in the emergency department. In terms of the severity of nausea, metoclopramide did not help patients any more than placebo (sham treatment). What is opioid-induced emesis? Physicians often give patients opioids for pain in emergency departments, but over a third experience the side effects of nausea and vomiting (emesis). Some experts have suggested...

Prone position for management of respiratory failure in non-intubated adults

2 months 3 weeks ago
Prone position for management of respiratory failure in non-intubated adults This is a protocol for a Cochrane Review (intervention). The objectives are as follows: To determine the effects of prone positioning versus standard care in either the supine or semi-recumbent position on adults who are non-intubated, and who are presenting with type I respiratory failure. This is a protocol....

Preparing a patient with bowel cancer for surgery with multiple interventions

2 months 3 weeks ago
Preparing a patient with bowel cancer for surgery with multiple interventions Aim of this review The aim of this review is to find out whether multiple interventions introduced in the period prior to surgery for bowel cancer could prepare a patient by increasing the patient's overall fitness, and thus improve outcomes after surgery. Cochrane researchers collected and analysed all available randomised controlled trials on this topic. Key messages Only three studies met the inclusion criteria for this review, information was not available for all outcomes and the overall certainty of evidence...

Xpert MTB/XDR, a rapid test for resistance to tuberculosis drugs

2 months 3 weeks ago
Xpert MTB/XDR, a rapid test for resistance to tuberculosis drugs Why is improving the diagnosis of tuberculosis drug resistance important? Tuberculosis tests, like Xpert MTB/RIF, Xpert MTB/RIF Ultra, and Truenat, only diagnose rifampicin resistance, but do not provide information about resistance to other drugs used to treat tuberculosis. This information is needed to allow for effective treatment to be started quickly. Not recognizing tuberculosis drug resistance when present (false negative, FN) may result in severe illness and death. An incorrect diagnosis of tuberculosis drug resistance...

What are the benefits and risks of ocrelizumab for multiple sclerosis?

2 months 3 weeks ago
What are the benefits and risks of ocrelizumab for multiple sclerosis? Key messages – Ocrelizumab is a recently approved medicine to treat people with multiple sclerosis (MS). In relapsing-remitting MS (where people experience flare-ups of symptoms), ocrelizumab probably substantially reduces flare-ups, may substantially reduce worsening of symptoms, and probably makes little or no difference to unwanted effects compared with interferon beta-1a (a standard treatment for MS), 96 weeks after treatment starts. – Compared to placebo (a dummy medicine) after 120 weeks of treatment for primary...

Tourniquet use for people with peripheral arterial disease undergoing major lower limb amputations

2 months 3 weeks ago
Tourniquet use for people with peripheral arterial disease undergoing major lower limb amputations This is a protocol for a Cochrane Review (intervention). The objectives are as follows: To assess the safety and effectiveness of tourniquet use in people undergoing major lower limb amputation for complications of peripheral arterial disease, specifically with regard to intraoperative blood loss, change in haemoglobin levels, transfusion rates, wound healing, and need for additional surgery. This is a protocol....

The use of antibiotics in the treatment of ulcerative colitis

2 months 3 weeks ago
The use of antibiotics in the treatment of ulcerative colitis What was the aim of this review? This Cochrane Review aimed to determine whether antibiotics are useful and safe for people with ulcerative colitis (UC) in achieving or maintaining remission. Key messages We found that antibiotics, when added to standard therapies, are similar to placebo in how often they fail to achieve remission or disease improvement for people with UC, measured up to three months from taking them. We found that antibiotics when compared to placebo may be useful in achieving remission or some improvement of UC...

Inserting a contraceptive implant at the same visit as an abortion or at a follow-up visit

2 months 3 weeks ago
Inserting a contraceptive implant at the same visit as an abortion or at a follow-up visit Review question We compared the initiation rate, effectiveness, and side effects of insertion of a contraceptive implant (implant for birth control) at the same visit as an abortion versus delayed insertion at a follow-up visit. Background The contraceptive implant is a highly effective method of birth control that is reversible and provides long duration of pregnancy protection. This method is suitable for almost all women, including women who have a pregnancy ended by removal or expulsion. Because...

Regional analgesia with or without general anaesthesia for breast cancer surgery: a network meta-analysis

2 months 4 weeks ago
Regional analgesia with or without general anaesthesia for breast cancer surgery: a network meta-analysis This is a protocol for a Cochrane Review (intervention). The objectives are as follows: To assess whether the analgesic efficacy and safety differ according to the regional analgesia technique used in women undergoing breast cancer surgery. This is a protocol....

Endovascular treatment for vertebral artery stenosis

2 months 4 weeks ago
Endovascular treatment for vertebral artery stenosis Question Is endovascular treatment plus medical treatment beneficial for people with symptomatic vertebral artery stenosis compared to medical treatment alone? Background The vertebral artery is the blood vessel that supplies the back of the brain. Narrowing of this vessel (vertebral artery stenosis) is an important cause of stroke, but not everyone who has vertebral artery stenosis will have symptoms. Medical treatment (mainly including controlling risk-factors and drug treatment), surgery, and endovascular treatment (dilation of the...

Drugs given to pregnant women and their babies to keep them still during fetal surgery and other invasive procedures on the baby

3 months ago
Drugs given to pregnant women and their babies to keep them still during fetal surgery and other invasive procedures on the baby We looked for evidence from randomised controlled trials on the effectiveness of anaesthetic and pain relief medication for preventing fetal movements (fetal immobilisation) to allow surgical and other invasive procedures to be performed safely on the unborn fetus whilst still in the mother's uterus. What is the issue? Use of ultrasound during pregnancy has made great advances resulting in increased diagnosis of problems with the development of unborn babies. Many...

Anaesthesia and analgesia in the emergency care setting for treating distal radius fractures in adults

3 months ago
Anaesthesia and analgesia in the emergency care setting for treating distal radius fractures in adults This is a protocol for a Cochrane Review (intervention). The objectives are as follows: The primary aim of this review is to assess the benefits and harms of different methods of anaesthesia and analgesia for the initial treatment of DRF in adults in the emergency care setting. The secondary aim of this review is to assess these outcomes in different age groups, fracture types, physicians performing the procedure, populations based on different geographical regions, and in closed reduction...

Pain management for medical abortion before 14 weeks' gestation

3 months ago
Pain management for medical abortion before 14 weeks' gestation Key Messages • Ibuprofen has the best evidence for managing pain during medical abortion in the first 14 weeks of pregnancy, but the best dose is unclear. • Further studies are needed along with a robust, consistent way of recording pain. What is medical abortion? There are two main types of abortion - surgical or medical. Surgical abortion is carried out by specialist doctors in a clinic. In medical abortion, women take medicine ('abortion pills' consisting of mifepristone and misoprostol) to end their pregnancy. Medical...

Stem cells for treating patients not responding to Crohn's disease treatment

3 months ago
Stem cells for treating patients not responding to Crohn's disease treatment Question Are stem cells (SCs) an effective and safe option in patients with Crohn's disease (CD) when they do not respond to their standard medical treatment? Key messages Stem cells when combined with standard medical treatment could be better than the medical treatment alone or with a placebo (a dummy treatment) in the healing of the opening in the perianal region connected to the bowels caused by CD (perianal fistula). Stem cells when combined with standard medical treatment could be safe when compared to...

Doppler trans-thoracic echocardiography for detection of pulmonary hypertension in adults

3 months ago
Doppler trans-thoracic echocardiography for detection of pulmonary hypertension in adults What was studied in this review? Pulmonary hypertension is high blood pressure in the blood vessels that supply blood from the right half of the heart to the lungs. It is a serious condition that can damage the right side of the heart. The walls in the blood vessels become thick and stiff which makes it harder for the blood to flow. This can lead to heart failure. Symptoms can include shortness of breath, tiredness, chest pain, a racing heartbeat or swelling in the lower limbs and abdomen. The symptoms...
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